Fastest Shot In The West!

How a lone Junkers 88 met his match from a Czech Pilot

 © text supplied and reprinted with permission Colin Schroeder, Greasby, Wirral. This material belongs in whole to him and any requests for copying should be made to Colin

Page updated 17 Nov 2016 with JU88 Flying Manual added.

A Hurricane still in the process of taking off from Speke Airport, Liverpool caught this Junkers out cold and shot him down. The plane crashed on the opposite side of the River Mersey, at Bromborough Docks. In the first of the two images, Liverpool can be seen to the rear, across the river. I have had an email (Nov 07) from Colin Shroeder from Greasby, a local expert on the Wirral and he informs me that this bomber was actually shot down by 3 Hurricanes, from 312 Sqn, a Czech Unit. All in all, the Hurricane was airborne for only 12 minutes.


On Tuesday the 8th October 1940, a Junkers Ju88 took off from its base at Caen, Carpiquet in Normandy northern France, loaded with four 250 kg bombs. It was to attack industrial targets of opportunity connected with aircraft production in the Merseyside area, and photograph the results. This included the Rootes Security Factory at Speke airport, which was producing Blenheim bombers. The route took it from Caen to Southampton, Bristol then via Droitwich to Merseyside arriving in the target area around 4:00 pm in the afternoon.

The Luftwaffe weather forecast for the day had indicated that there would be cloud covering the route and target area. Ideal conditions for avoiding contact with British fighters. In fact the Ju88 pilot Oberleutnant Helmut Brückmann used these clouds to evade fighters in the Bristol area. He suspected that his flight was being tracked by noise detection equipment on the ground picking up his engine’s noise. He had expected a relatively safe approach to his target due to the cloud cover, but was surprised by clear skies suddenly appearing above the River Mersey. It appears that the noise detection equipment acted as a sort of ‘early warning system’ alerting the local defences of the potential arrival of the Ju88.

Les Jones was on lookout duty on the top of George Henry Lee department store in the centre of Liverpool. He spotted the lone Ju88 flying up the River Mersey at about 1,200 feet. Squadron Leader Herbert (Tubby) Mermagen, the Station Commander at Speke was in the operations room where the incoming raid was being plotted. At Speke No.312 (Czech) Squadron kept a section of three aircraft at readiness, with another section of three aircraft at 30 minutes readiness. He gave the order for three Hawker Hurricanes Mk.I of Yellow Section to be scrambled and patrol Hoylake. The section consisted of Yellow 1 Flight Lieutenant Denys Gillam, Yellow 2 Pilot Officer Alois Vasatko, and Yellow 3 Sergeant Josef Stehlik. They took off at 4:10 pm

No.289 AA Battery of the 93rd Regiment of the Royal Artillery located at the Ince gun site had been alerted to the approach of an enemy aircraft and the guns were manned and loaded ready for action. The Ju88 approached from the direction of Helsby and flew over the gun site heading northwest. The four guns were brought to bear on the Ju88. Because of the possibility of friendly fighters in the area, the Gun Control Officer (GCO) Captain J. Blundell, hesitated to give the order to engage the Ju88. But No.1 gun, no doubt excited by having an enemy aircraft in their sights had opened up with three shells from their 4.5 gun. As the Hurricanes roared into sight, the GCO ordered cease-fire.

Yellow section were climbing after take-off, still with their wheels down, when Sergeant Stehlik, saw bursts of fire from AA guns. It was this, which drew his attention to the Ju88. On sighting the Hurricanes the Ju88 started to climb sharply trying to gain cloud cover.

Sergeant Stehlik got in the first burst with a beam attack on the Ju88. Flight Lieutenant Gillam and Pilot Officer Vasatko attacked from the rear and soon the Ju88 was seen to be gliding downwards with its starboard engine on fire. Heavy and accurate fire was returned from the Ju88, during the whole action which hit all three Hurricanes. Flight Lieutenant Gillam's windscreen was smashed, Pilot Officer Vasatko exhaust manifold was damaged, and Sergeant Stehlik suffered damage to the petrol tank and the gun pipeline.

Flight Lieutenant Denys Edgar Gillam Combat Report:

On being ordered to take off I led Yellow section. When at 1,000 feet I noticed Yellow 3 break off and climb. I then saw a Ju88 above me just about to enter cloud. I pulled the emergency boost control and climbed up to a position vertically underneath it. Yellow 3 did a ¼ attack and passed away to my left. I closed to an astern position 50–80 yards away and followed it through cloud firing continuously. One engine poured out smoke and the aircraft commenced to dive. I followed it down to 800 feet then broke away as both engines were on fire and I had run out of ammunition. While I was in the astern position after we had broken cloud Yellow 2 and 3 were doing ¼ attacks. Continuous return fire was experienced and I was hit on the windscreen and in the wing.

Pilot Officer Alois Vasatko Combat Report:

I was Yellow 2 and started close behind Yellow leader, staying about 20 yards behind. On turning over the river Yellow leader started to climb sharply and looking round I sighted the E/A (Enemy Aircraft).

I gave full gas, turned to port and flew about 60 feet below the E/A from quarter but could not fire on account of the presence of Yellow 3, I turned and climbed and attacked E/A from rear and above (about 2 seconds at 100 yards). Immediately afterwards, I saw Yellow 1 attack E/A from below, I broke away slightly to right and saw E/A smoking from starboard engine and gliding downward.

I followed at 1,200-1,500 feet distance and approached, but could not fire at once as Yellow 3 was attacking. I then fired a short burst and experienced return fire from the upper gunner. E/A then flew level at a height of 200 feet and I attacked from the stem and gave a third short burst and saw the E/A fall flat on the ground and slew round to port. It lies on a meadow at the edge of the waterborne Balloon Barrage.

Sergeant Josef Stehlik Combat Report:

I was Yellow 3 and shortly after taking off I saw AA fire and about 50 yards above the bursts on E/A flying due west at 1,200 feet, very slowly. On seeing us the E/A climbed sharply trying to reach cloud cover. I was about 1,200 feet below and to the rear and immediately gave a long burst until E/A disappeared into cloud. I continued to climb through cloud for about 15 seconds, and then saw a silhouette above me 50 yards in front. I immediately gave a second burst and E/A ceased climbing and glided down towards the left bank of the Mersey. I gave a third burst, emptying my guns, and saw his starboard engine on fire. I had to break away to avoid the Balloon Barrage, and as my guns were empty returned home.

During the fire fight, which lasted just over 5 minutes the Ju88’s starboard engine was damaged in a hail of bullets. Leutnant Herbert Schlegel the observer seated next to the pilot did not have a steel plate at the back of his seat like the pilot did, and as a consequence receive several bullets which killed him including a bullet through the head. Oberleutnant Brückmann tried to jettison his bomb load in order speed up his escape, but the bomb release mechanism had been damaged in the fire fight and only two of its four bombs dropped into the River Mersey.

The damage the Ju88 sustained was so bad that the pilot was unable to keep the aircraft in the air. The Ju88 was spotted by witnessed on the ground gliding past Bromborough Church towards Bromborough Docks with smoke billowing from its damaged engine.


The aircraft crashed landed on reclaimed land at Bromborough Dock with the undercarriage retracted and two bombs still in their racks, it slid on its belly across the field and stopped, slewing round to port. The time was 4:15 pm. The port engine had been ripped out of its mountings and one of the remaining bombs torn from its rack and lay near the aircraft along with a dinghy, which the crash had caused to be inflated.

The first thing that Oberleutnant Brückmann who received only minor had to do was to get rid of the secret documents by eating them. Sonderfuhrer Horst Lehmann, who was in the ventral gondola under the cockpit acting as rear gunner, had detached the gondola from the aircraft at a height of about 3 feet just before the aircraft crash-landed. The gondola or bola was known by the Germans as the ‘Bodenwanne’ or ‘Bottom Tub’.

Lehmann broke just about every bone in his body including his legs in addition to major stomach injuries. He was unable to leave the hospital for many months. His decision to detach the gondola to save himself is interesting. He could have joined the crew up in the cockpit, probably without much harm, but there was the fact the aircraft could have exploded with the bombs still attached. He had only a few seconds to decide on how to survive the crash, what a dilemma.

Unteroffizier Helmut Weth the wireless operator/gunner was injured in the face. Weth and Lehmann were eventually taken under guard by ambulance to Clatterbridge hospital for treatment.

Harry Gill, a gateman at Bromborough dock who was about 200 yards from the crashed Ju88 ran towards the aircraft. As he ran, he saw two men (Brückmann & Weth) scramble out of the cockpit and go behind the aircraft. He found them bent over a third man (Lehmann) lying on the ground some way behind the aircraft.

Gill demanded their guns, which they surrendered without argument. At that point two Unilever employees, Mr W.A. Rand from the electrical department and Rob Thompson assistant manager of Fuel & Steam Department arrived. Thompson, who had been cycling by when the aircraft crashed, escorted Brückmann to the Dock Gatehouse to be kept in custody until the military authorities arrived. Men from the Local Defence Volunteer (LDV) units of Unilever and Fawcett Preston arrived to control the growing crowds. Gill and Rand made a makeshift splint using a shunter’s pole for Lehmann legs. Eventually Harry Gill was able to look around the Ju88. He found maps of Merseyside, which clearly detailed buildings and storage tanks in the Port Sunlight factory and Bromborough dock.


The victorious Hurricane pilots landed back at Speke completing what would be claimed as the fastest shooting down of an enemy aircraft: about 12 minutes from take-off to touch down. The pilots got a hearty reception when they landed and were carried shoulder high by their comrades. A large number of station personnel and local civilians witnessed the event, including those on a local bus going past the airport. So great was the interest that the airport gates had to be closed the following day when crowds of local civilians arrived wanting to congratulate the pilots. No.312 (Czech) Squadron had only become operational in late September 1940, and this was their first action.

As soon as he landed, Flight Lieutenant Gillam got into his car, and drove through the Mersey Tunnel to the scene of the crash. There he cut a badge off the side of the aircraft together with the Swastika on the starboard side of the fin for a souvenir. Returning to Speke it was hung in the hut at the squadron dispersal. After the war, Flight Lieutenant Gillam presented the panel with the Swastika to RAF Finingley. Sadly following the closure of Finingley in 1996, the panel went missing. It has been reported that a paddle from the dinghy, which had a plaque mounted on it and a painting entitled ‘The Fastest Victory’ painted by Robert Taylor and signed by Flight Lieutenant Gillam has been seen for sale on eBay in 2006.

George Knut from Willaston, an RAF armourer based at Hooton Park was dispatched to look after the armament and took the 9mm machine guns back to Hooton Park. On examination, the aircraft was found to have fifty .303 bullet strikes in it. The bombsight was of great interest to the RAF as it was a new type and the first to fall into their hands.

Military personnel inspecting the wreckage shortly after the Ju88 crashedThe aircraft was removed three days later, and the Commander of the Merseyside Garrison said that the aircraft was to be put on public view in connection with ‘War Weapons Week’ in Liverpool the following week. In the meantime it was moved to the Oval Recreation Ground in nearby Bebington where it was put on display to the public. More than £70 was collected for the Mayor of Babington’s ‘Spitfire Fund’. On the 18th October, the Ju88 was paraded through the streets of Liverpool and then displayed at St George's Plateau alongside a Messerschmitt Bf.109. Arthur Hardy of Higher Tranmere was a pupil of Rock Ferry High school. He remembers that half the boys who stayed for lunch made their way to the Oval and armed with pen knifes acquired souvenirs of the aircraft. His treasured souvenir was a piece of thick rubber from the fuel tank along with pieces of Perspex from the aircrafts windows. On returning to school after lunch the class room had a distinct rubbery smell, he was not the only boy with a piece of fuel tank in his pocket.

Mrs Anstead-Browne a member of the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service), and organizer of the Neston Spitfire Fund, secured the use of the Ju88 to help raise money for their Spitfire Fund. The Ju88 was transported on two low loaders to Parkgate where it was placed on view in a field off Bevyl Road, which adjoined the Parade. A charge of 6d for an adult and 3d for children was made to view the aircraft. It caused great interest with the locals and attracted crowds. The bomber remained there until the 24th of November when it was taken to RAF Sealand and disposed of.

Arthur Draper, who was eight years old at the time, remembers the Ju88 arriving on low loaders, the fuselage on one and the wings on the other. They were placed together so that it looked as though it had just belly-landed.  “I took a bit of the tail fin, which was lying on the ground. It was dark green and smelled like rotten cheese. I put it in our shed but my dad made me throw it away as it had such a terrible smell.”

Quite a number of those who saw the aircraft thought it had come down at Parkgate. Local boys were very keen to collect souvenirs, and so the Little Neston Company of the Home Guard guarded the aircraft at night. Eddie Scott remembers:

“The Little Neston Company of the Home Guard was charged with the responsibility for protecting it from the depredations of souvenir-hunters. Half-dozen of us detailed for the task made our way to the rendezvous, an empty house behind what is now the Parkgate Hotel and mounted a patrolling guard in pairs for the standard two hours on and four off. I remember the four off particularly for the hardness of the bare floor and the inadequacy of the single blanket, and the two on for the inky blackness of the night”.

Maurice Jones went to see the aircraft: “There were plenty of people there and it poured with rain. It was a very miserable day. Corrugated sheets had been put on the ground round the plane, as it was so wet. A wing had come off the plane but was laid out, as it should have been. There was a long line of people waiting to go in, and you went in through the door the crew had used. It was the first German object of war I had ever seen. I went in and sat in the pilot’s seat and I can remember a lady saying they needed terribly long legs to reach the pedals”.


In 1990, the late Doug Darroch, local aviation historian, and founder of the Warplane Wreck Museum at Fort Perch, New Brighton succeeded in tracing the pilot, Helmut Brückmann to his home in Munich. Doug was hoping to get Brückmann to return to the scene of the incident on its 50th anniversary. Unfortunately Brückmann was involved with the celebration of the reunification of Germany and was therefore unable to.

However on Friday 1st November 1991, following arrangements made by BBC Radio Merseyside presenter Monty Lister and Doug Darroch, Helmut Brückmann took off from the playing fields of Wirral Grammar School in the Duke of Westminster’s Jet Ranger helicopter (G-BAKS) and landed at the crash site just over 51 years since he had crash-landed there. The Mayor and Mayoress of Wirral (Councillor and Mrs Gordon Paterson), eyewitnesses to the original action the press along with John Petric from Lubrizol who now owned the land on which the Ju88 crashed were there to greet him and his two sons who had accompanied him. This was followed by a reception at Bebington Civic Centre at which Brückmann was presented with among other things, a painting of the dramatic events by renowned local aviation artist Malcolm Kinnear, and a mounted piece of the Ju88 from Doug Darroch’s collection at Perch Rock.

BBC television broadcast an item on the event in their Look North program that evening, and Monty Lister did an interview with Brückmann for Radio Merseyside.

Brückmann had hoped to meet Denys Gillam but Gillam had unfortunately died of a heart attack only a few weeks earlier. Later Brückmann visited the Military Cemetery at Cannock Chase where Herbert Schegel had been reinterred. Following this there was a trip to Ambleside in the Lake District where he had been held as a prisoner of war before being sent to Canada for the duration of the conflict.


Speke intelligence officer, Pilot Officer Phillips reports from the three pilots:

‘Yellow section had just received the order to patrol Hoylake and were still near the aerodrome at a height of 1,000 feet, when a Ju88 was sighted by anti-aircraft positions up river, the bursts attracting the attention of yellow 3 which sighted the Ju88 flying slowly westwards at 1,200 feet. The Ju88 then in turn sighted our formation and climbed sharply trying to gain cloud cover. Shortly before entering, the Ju88 received a burst from Yellow 3 which was followed by continual attacks from Yellow 1 (continuous astern attacks) Yellow 2 and 3 which weaved in and out attacking from below and above principally from the rear on account of bad visibility. The Ju88 received bursts from Yellow 1 and 3 while still climbing through cloud and started gliding downwards. Yellow 2 and 3 doing quarter attacks.’

‘By this time both of the Ju88's engines were on fire and it was seen by Yellow 2 and a large number of ground observers to fall flat down on a meadow on the left bank of the Mersey. During combat heavy and accurate return fire was experienced from the Ju88 up to the last moment before the crash. Slight damage was sustained by all our aircraft a bullet hitting the windscreen of Yellow 1 another the exhaust manifolds of Yellow 2 while Yellow 3 sustained damage to the petrol tank and the gun pipe line (He states in his individual report he returned thinking all his ammunition had gone). Cine guns were not carried. Anti-Aircraft fire was ceased immediately our fighters came into action’


Denys Gillam memoirs extract:

‘We were scrambled on 8th October in poor visibility. With our wheels still down we spotted this Ju88 being engaged by AA fire. My two wingmen began to chase it as I pulled up into a climbing turn. As my two Czechs engaged him I rolled or rather slid off the top of the climb right under it, the Ju88 was only at 1,000 feet. When I had enough power I pulled up and got a very close shot and it went down and crash landed with both engines on fire on the other side of the Mersey, about half a mile or so from the airfield. I continued round, lowered my wheels and put back down on the runway. It must have been one of the fastest Fighter Command kills on record. I had a bullet hit my windscreen; in fact the German gunner scored hits on all three hurricanes.

Taking my car, I drove through the Mersey Tunnel to the scene of the crash just as the crew was being rounded up. The pilot was dead but the others had survived although the gunner and wireless operator had been injured. I cut the German badge off the side of the aeroplane together with one of the swastikas for souvenirs, and then returned to Speke’.

Harry Gill gateman at Bromborough Dock:

‘The air raid siren had sounded but in those days nobody paid much attention to them. I was on duty at the South Gatehouse at Bromborough dock, when a twin-engined aeroplane plunged out of the clouded sky and crashed about 200 yards away on land reclaimed from the River Mersey. I ran towards it and half way there I looked up and saw a swastika on the tail fin. Two men were scrambled out of the cockpit and ran behind the damaged wing. The two Germans who were tall and well-built were bending over a third airman lying at their feet. I sized them by the epaulettes of their uniforms and demanded their guns, which they surrendered without argument.

Mr Rand and Thompson then appeared at my side; Mr Thompson took charge of one of the Germans and escorted him to the Dock Gatehouse to be kept in custody until the military authorities arrived. One of the crew was found to be dead at the controls. Alongside the Ju88 was a fully inflated dinghy, and two unexploded bombs, which had fallen from the aircraft as it bounced along the ground, were lying near the smoking port engine.

At that stage of the war, a military unit was stationed near the dock and they mounted a guard over the aircraft until it was removed by the RAF. The Air force were very concerned with the bombsight as it was a new type and was the first to fall in our hands, they carefully dismantled it and brought it to the Gatehouse where my colleagues and I kept it under guard until it was taken away. That evening we were visited by the three pilots who shot the Ju88 down, having been the first to approach the Ju88, it seemed a fitting conclusion to an exciting day when I shook hands with the victors’

Frank ‘Doc’ Holmes:

‘On the 8th October 1940 I was standing my doorstep at 30 Ashfield Road when the sirens sounded. In the air above us was a German Ju88 with three of our fighters chasing it and it was firing back at them. The fighters were Hurricanes. The Ju88 veered and nearly hit Bromborough church steeple, but the fighters got the better of it and shot it down near Bromborough dock. I had a good idea where it crashed, so I picked up my eldest boy Barry aged 6 years, put him on the crossbar of my bicycle, and made my way to where the Ju88 had come down.

When we arrived the crew had been removed from the plane. The pilot, only a very young man was killed and the co-pilot was wounded. The machine gunner was not to badly hurt. They were all taken to Clatterbridge Hospital. It was a sad sight to see, but that is war.

A pilot arrived on the scene about 15 minutes after the Ju88 was shot down he had come all the way from Speke Airport where he had left his Hurricane. He was also a very young man. He cut the German badge off the side of the Ju88, also one of the Swastikas, got back in his car and left for Speke and home. Of course the Army were called in to guard the Ju88 and surround it with ropes and posts.

There was a bunch of keys lying on the ground near the plane, which I picked up and gave to one of the soldiers on guard and while doing so had a quick look inside, I was sorry I did because it was not a pretty site at all. I did notice that in the glove compartment of the Ju88 there was a bar of Cadbury’s Chocolate and a pack of Churchman’s cigarettes which must have come from the Dunkirk campaign’.

Ron Wright from Eastham:

‘It was an amazing experience. I was on my way home from school to where I lived in the ICI houses at Pool Woods, just behind the trees. I saw the aircraft flashing past the houses at almost rooftop level and I thought it was going to crash on them, you could hear the rat-a-tat from the three Hurricanes guns. The Hurricanes forced the German bomber down in Bromborough Dock.

A handful of us young kids rushed up to the wrecked plane, way ahead of the security services. There were three crew, I think, two were out of the plane in a daze, but the third was dying. He was asking for a cigarette and a factory worker, who'd arrived by now, gave him one, but one of his mates kicked it away. At the same time, the Hurricanes were doing victory-rolls overhead. I was gobsmacked by it all’

Len Jones from Speke:

Len Jones was 5 years old and lived at 144 Western Avenue in Speke and was playing on the front lawn with some wooden tanks his dad had made him. He heard the sound of aircraft engines approaching and on looking up saw the Ju88 that was being pursued by two Hurricanes. Engrossed he watched as the Ju88 trailing smoke, passed over the roof of his house and the next thing the lawn around him erupted into molehills as the cannon shot from the pursuing aircraft hit the ground. The shots literally bracketed him. Then tiles from the roof rained down as they too were hit by the cannon fire from the pursuing planes.

Dennis Housley who lived in Magazine Village:

Dennis was one of three 12 & 13 year old boys who had a half-day off from school and were out on the Mersey in a small rowing boat. He remembers that the weather was overcast with a slight mist in the air and that he was in the Eastham Channel with Alan Gratrix and Ronnie Hill. They heard explosions from the direction of Speke, but couldn’t see anything at that time, so thought they had better go home. Just then Frank Rogers the Gunpowder Magazines Foreman started waving frantically from the beach at the end of Magazine Village. As the noise grew louder, the boys beached their boat. Frank urged them towards the small cliff on the beach and told them to keep flat against the cliff. He said, “It’s a dogfight”, and there was a Ju88 being fired on by Hurricanes. Pieces were flying off the German aircraft and were dropping into the mud on the shore, and smoke was pouring out of the engines.

The aircraft had gone over the dock wall, and disappeared within seconds. Dennis said, “She’s down on the dock” Frank looked concerned, and replied, “I’ll get my gun”, and went off to get it. The Ju88 had just scraped over the dock wall by about 6 feet. Running towards the aircraft, Dennis watched as one of the Hurricanes did a climbing ‘Victory Roll’ over the scene.

After a short time a Local Defence Volunteer (LDV) arrived on the scene and tried to keep the crowd back with a gun. He was told in no uncertain terms to “point the gun at the bloody Jerry’s”. Dennis liberated the wingtip and made off with it included the landing light, the bulb of which had marked on it OSRAM. Made in England. His father later managed to speak to a member of the RAF team, that it was okay for Dennis to keep it. Dennis’s friend Ronnie made off with a forage cap from one of the crew. The wingtip was given away in various pieces over the following years. At Woodslee School the next day Dennis and his two friends had to stand up in front of the school and re-tell what they saw.

In 1991, during Helmut Brückmann visit, Dennis went along to meet him and appeared on BBC TV’s ‘Look North’ piece on the incident.

Birkenhead News 12th October 1940:

The Birkenhead News reported the incident on the 9th of October with just a few lines.

In the 12th October issue, they reported the incident more fully with a picture of the Ju88 and the headline ‘One Less to Come Again!’ This time the paper printed what it claimed to be comments from a ‘Captured Nazi airman about nineteen years old’. How the reporter obtained the comments is a mystery, one can only assume that the Nazi was Brückmann although he was 26 years old. The paper reported that ‘the Nazi spoke excellent English, which he said he learnt at school and that this had been his fifth visit to the area’.

The newspaper went on to say that the pilot had commented on how in spite of Dr. Goebbels efforts, the Germans were beginning to doubt the number of British air losses. He was convinced that Germany was invincible for he had been told that London had been razed to the ground and it would only be a short time before England was beaten. What he could not understand was why people here seemed so content and why, although there had just been an air raid they were going cheerfully about normal tasks. Regarding starvation in Germany, he said “that there were good stocks of wheat and tomatoes but the rationing of other articles particularly meat and butter is very stringent”. He went on to comment that “German airman, were repeatedly told that if they came down over England they would not be taken prisoner”. He said with a cheerful grin “But we have no complaint to make about your hospitality so far”. The paper went onto comment about the fliers flying boots with leather soles but the uppers of canvas lined with wool.


The German crew were moved to Cockfosters in London for a week’s interrogation. Following interrogation they were then transported to Grizdale Hall in the Lake District for 3 months before being moved to Glasgow to board the Duchess of York to sail to Halifax, Canada. During the voyage they were always mindful of the possibility of German submarine attack.

Whilst on board the Duchess of York, Oberleutnant Brückmann met Leutnant Franz von Werra, the only German to escape from British custardy and return to Germany during the war. They had a bet who would be the first to escape and get back to Germany. Brückmann was able to escape in Halifax while leaving the ship but was recaptured a few days later by the Canadian police. Werra did however escape from a window of the train taking them from Halifax to the prisoner of war camp in the Canadian interior. He made his way through Canada in wintertime and deep freezing temperatures, and entered the United States. From there he made his way to Mexico where he was able to return to Germany. His adventure resulted in a book and the 1957 film ‘The one that got away’ in which Hardy Kruger played Werra. The crew were separated with Brückmann going to a POW camp for officers and Helmut Weth heading for the cold at Angler, Lake Superior, but a more comfortable time was had later at Lethbridge in Alberta. Brückmann and Weth never met again.

Helmut Weth POW identity photograph in CanadaHelmut Weth told his son Reinhard that forgetting the circumstances of being a POW they had a great time there with lots of food. He said that the POW’s in Lethbridge got so much butter that they were unable to eat it all; however the Nazi leaders of the camp ordered the butter burned in lamps instead of giving it back to the Canadians. The prisoners were allowed to govern the camp more or less by themselves, they even had pets organized concerts and theatre performances and as a privilege were allowed to work outside the camp, helping the local farmers. He said only ‘nice guys’ got permission to work there, and the farmer’s wife always gave the POW’s a good lunch, treating them almost like a member of her family. Helmut learned to speak English in the camp, and classes were organized that would lead to a higher education.


The Ju88 type had made its maiden flight in 1936. Designed as a high-speed bomber, it also served as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, and some were equipped for close air support with one 75mm cannon and two 37mm cannons. It was also used as a night-fighter, with on board radar. At the end of the war, some Ju88 were even converted into radio-controlled flying bombs. Eventually 14,780 Ju88 were produced.

The Bromborough Junkers was a Ju88A-1 model built by Norddeutsche Dornier Werke under license from Junkers and was accepted in May 1940. Its Werke Nummer (Work Number) was 4068. The Jumo 211 engines were built by different manufacturers. Junkers had built the port engine and Mitteldeutsche Motoren Werke of Leipzig built the starboard engine.

The aircraft carried the code ‘M7+DK’ were the ‘M7’ indicated that it was part of Kampfgruppe (Bomber Group) KGr806. The ‘K’ indicated the Staffel (squadron) within the group, in this case No.2 Staffel, and the ‘D’ indicated the individual aircraft within the Staffel. There was a crest painted on the nose, which depicted a German eagle in flight carrying an Iron Cross with a small Swastika superimposed on red, white and blue concentric circles, the inner ring was partly green and partly white, this was probably the crews own badge. Part of this badge can be seen at Doug Darroch’s Warplane Wreck Investigation Group Museum in Fort Perch Rock, New Brighton.


Ju.88A-1 Specification

Crew               Pilot, Observer (second pilot), in two front facing seats. Radio operator/gunner in a rearward facing seat. Ventral rear gunner in prone rearward facing gondola

Engines           Liquid cooled, 12-cylinder inverted-Vee, Junkers Jumo 211B-1 (or G-1) of 1,210 h.p each.

Max speed       280 mph with normal operational load

Max ceiling     32,150 feet

Range              620 miles

Weights           Empty 16,975 lbs.       Loaded 22,840 lbs.

Wingspan        60 ft. 3¼ in

Length             47 ft. 2½ in

Height             17 ft. 5¾ in

Armament       Three 7.92mm machine guns, 1 firing forward, 1 upper rear, and 1 rear ventral gondola.


Kampfgruppe (Bomber Group) KGr806

KGr806 was part of Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle’s Luftflotte (Air fleet) 3, with its aircraft based in Northern France. KGr806 was formed in September 1939, originally as a coastal bomber reconnaissance unit, which was absorbed into the Luftflotte 3 as an orthodox bomber group, retaining its nucleus of naval officers based at Nantes. The unit the aircraft came from was 2/KGr806 which was the 2nd Staffel (squadron) of KGr806 on detachment at Caen. Originally equipped with Heinkel He111, it was re-equipped with Ju88A-1 before and during the Battle of Britain. KGr806 later saw operational service on the Eastern Front and the Mediterranean.

Oberleutnant Helmut Brückmann

Oberleutnant (RAF equivalent Flying Officer) Helmut Brückmann, the Flugzeugfuhrer (pilot) was born Hamburg in 1914. He joined the German Navy after graduation from school in Emden in 1934 with the aim to study medicine and become a medical doctor. This promise was granted by the government to the best graduates but was later revoked. They needed more pilots and so he was forced to change his goal, commencing flying training in 1936. He was promoted to Oberleutnant in 1939 and was made Commanding Officer of a coastal reconnaissance squadron, and subsequently Director of a pilot training school. Early in WWII he became deputy Squadron Leader in a bomber wing, regularly flying He111 and Ju88 aircraft. The operation on 8th October was his 36th operational missions and his 5th to Merseyside.

Following his incarceration in Canada Helmut Brückmann was repatriated in May of 1944 in what was the second repatriation by the International Red Cross of an exchange of an equal number of prisoners on each side on the basis of illness. He was suffering from a severe form of gastritis that was feared to be cancer, which fortunately it was not. The spectrum of diagnostic facilities in those times being by far less sophisticated compared to today. He was transported to New York where he boarded the Gripsholm which was on charter to the US Government and had been given safe conduct to leave New York on 2nd May for Algiers where it arrived on 14th May and collect a further 404 German prisoners before heading for Barcelona. Arriving at Barcelona on the 16th May she berthed at a quay 150 yards from the ex-Italian hospital ship Gradisca which had brought the allied prisoners who were to be exchanged. The prisoners were exchange and Brückmann boarded the Gradisca and headed for Marseilles and Germany. Repatriation strictly ruled out any combatant job for the remaining months of the war. He joined the Luftwaffe General Staff, and was promoted to the rank of Major and did desk work in Berlin and Potsdam.

It was now he met his future wife Margrit. They met in the air raid shelter of the Luftwaffe General Staff in the midst of an allied air raid on Berlin. Margrit had been commanded to work for the Luftwaffe General Staff that was quite common for young women in those days. They had to interrupt their own career.

They married in April of 1945, shortly before the end of the war. Helmut had been relocated from Berlin to Bavaria and Margrit was able to follow him shortly afterwards. This turned out to be a quite fortunate development for them as Bavaria was to be part of the American sector when Germany was divided into four parts. Not long after their first son arrived and Helmut had to find work to keep his young family. They eventually had two sons who were able to take up the medical profession he had originally wanted to do.

When the University of Munich took up its work again in the destroyed city he was one of the first students taking up studies of languages, studying and working at the same time. Eventually he became the director of a Munich language school and in 1952 founded and was director of the Goethe Institut, a worldwide institution for foreigners to study the German language which is still operating today.

In 1959 he re-joined the General Staff of the Luftwaffe of the newly founded Bundeswehr (founded in 1956 to be part of NATO). They were in need of experienced military professionals and had asked him to join. This in combination with his knowledge of the English language and his international experience gained in his former work as head of the Goethe Institut he was what they wanted.

He became a Lt. Colonel in the Ministry of Defence at Bonn. After a period as Commander of a cadet-training wing in the Luftwaffe Officers Training School in Munich, he was promoted to full Colonel in 1961 and transferred to the German Embassy in Washington D.C. USA as air attaché. After an additional assignment as the German Military representative with the NATO committee, he returned to Germany as head of the Military Studies Group in the German Ministry of Defence. He retired in 1973 and died in 2001 at Laufen-Leobendorf.     

Leutnant Herbert Schlegel

Leutnant zur See (Royal Navy equivalent Sub-Lieutenant) Herbert Schlegel a Marine officer the aircrafts Beobachter (observer/second pilot) born on 6th April 1916 was killed by a bullet wound to the head, and was originally buried at Hooton Village Churchyard. His body was moved in 1962 to the German military cemetery at Cannock, Staffordshire, block No.3, grave No.117.

Unteroffizier Helmut Weth

Unteroffizier (RAF equivalent Corporal) Helmut Weth was the 25 year-old Bordfunker (wireless operator/gunner). He was born during the First World War on 3rd March 1915, as the second of three children in Schweinfurt, Northern Bavaria. His Mother had to raise her children by herself when her husband died in 1924. Helmuth grew up in a protestant community, being an avowed Christian and a member of the local YMCA which enjoyed the ‘Wanderlust’ by arranging hiking and bicycle trips for its members.

After graduating from secondary school he became an apprentice type setter. However, when he finished his apprenticeship in 1933, wide spread unemployment due to the bad economic situation in Germany made it impossible for him to find a suitable job. This was the reason why he joined Germany’s then newly developing armed forces, and became a sailor in the German navy. He was stationed on various Baltic harbours where he trained as a radio operator.

During the Spanish Civil War from 1936 he served on the torpedo boat ‘Luchs’ during various German navy missions on the side of the Spanish rebel national forces of Franco. After returning home, he was asked to join the newly formed ‘Seefliegerverbände’ or Marine Air Forces training as a radio operator and navigator in 2-seat Heinkel He60 biplane.

After the defeat of France he was stationed in Nantes and Caen with the KGr806, where he was a member of Helmut Brückmann’s crew on various missions in a Ju88-A to England during the Battle of Britain.

He married his wife Magdalene in Flensburg, Germany’s most northern city, 3km from the Danish border in May 1940, just 5 months before he became a POW for the next seven years. He returned home to Flensburg in 1947, via England, where he finally had to spend some time as a ‘forced labourer’. Back in Germany he and Magdalene started a family with their children born in 1948, 1950 and 1953. They moved back south to his former home in Schweinfurt and later to Würzburg. Here he was able to find jobs as a type and Linotype setter, and later as a proof reader. He retired at 65, and died just five years later after suffering from a brain tumour in 1985 at Würzburg.

Sonderfuehrer Horst Lehmann

Sonderfuehrer Horst Lehmann was 37 years old. In English, Sonderfuehrer translates to Specialist Leader. They had special linguistic or technical skills, but lacked the necessary military training. They wore standard military uniforms, and had officer rank without a commission. This gives them protection under the Geneva Convention if taken prisoner. They only had authority within the area covered by their specialist skills. Lehmann was a ‘Bildberichter’ (Photographic War Correspondent) from Luftwaffe’s No.2 Propaganda Company, on board to photograph the outcome of the raid. Lehmann recovered sufficiently from his injuries to be able to be return to Germany on crouches in the first repatriation of wounded in October 1943 organized by the International Red Cross.


No.312 (Czech) Squadron came into being as the second Czechoslovak fighter unit. It was formed on 29th August 1940 at the Czech aircrew depot at RAF Cosford. The home base of the squadron was RAF Duxford, the same airfield where No.310 (Czech) Squadron was based. Two days later the first nine used Hawker Hurricanes Mk.1 were flown into Duxford and on the 4th September arrived a Miles Master Mk.1. Czech airmen, flying personnel and ground staff, arrived at RAF Duxford during afternoon of the 5th September. The squadron as part of No.9 Group Fighter Command was based around experienced pilots, who had already had combat experience during the Battle of France, and many of who had more than one victory.

On the 6th September 1940, the pilots began with theoretical preparation for flying on the Hurricanes and with training flights on the Master. The training was very slow due to the fact the unit had just one trainer aircraft. For faster retraining of the pilots, another Master was loaned from No 310 (Czech) Squadron. After nearly a month the level of training was very high and on the 26th September the squadron moved to its new home, the RAF station at Speke airport, Liverpool. There the unit completed its retraining and in last days of September obtained further Hurricanes. On the 2nd October 1940, No 312 (Czech) Squadron was declared as operational and its task was to protect the Liverpool area from enemy raids.

The squadron’s motto was, ‘Non multi sed multa’ - 'Not many but much' and the squadron badge was, A stork Volant. The stork in the badge relates to the French 'Escadrille des Cygelines' with whom the original pilots of No 312 (Czech) squadron had flown.

Two days after their first victory in downing the Bromborough Ju88. Sergeant Otto Hanzlicek aged 29, took off from Speke along with Pilot Officer Dvorak to practice ‘dog fights’. At 2:15pm, the engine of Hanzlicek Hurricane caught fire and he was forced to abandon the aircraft near the Oglett. He bailed out, and the wind took him out over the River Mersey, where he fell into the river some 300-400 yards from the riverbank, and was drowned. The aircraft came down in the river off the end of runway 08 at Speke. Hanzlicek body was found up river, 5 miles to the east at Widnes on the 1st November. The squadron eventually left Speke for RAF Valley on Anglesey, on the 3rd March 1941.

Flight Lieutenant Denys Edgar Gillam (37167) DSO DFC AFC

Denys Edgar Gillam was born in Tyneside in 1915 and at the age of 16 he attended a Public School Aviation Camp at Norwich, where he managed to obtain his ‘A’ license, Royal Aero Club Certificate No 12,291 on the 12th September 1934, it was then decided that Gillam would apply for entry into the RAF, he made an application and went for an interview and was subsequently offered a Short Service Commission. Two months after leaving school he was called up into the RAF and went to Uxbridge for basic training, following this he was posted to No.6 Flying Training School (FTS) at Netheravon. Upon completing his flying training he was posted to No.29 Squadron at Amriya in the Middle East, flying Hawker Demons for six months during the Abyssinian crisis.

After returning to England, Gillam volunteered for the Met Flight in January 1937 and was posted to Aldergrove in Northern Ireland remaining there for 2½ years. It was whilst serving with this unit that he was awarded the Air Force Cross (AFC) in February 1938 for his work with the Met Flight and also for flying supplies to the inhabitants of Rathlin Island who had been cut off due to the severe weather conditions.

When war broke out Gillam was posted on 27th September 1939 as a flight commander with No.616 (South Yorkshire) Squadron at Doncaster and it was with this squadron that Gillam fought during the Battle of Britain. At the end of the Battle he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) and posted to Duxford to assisting in the forming of No.312 (Czech) Squadron. At the end of November 1940 Gillam was given command of No.306 (Polish) Squadron, until the 2nd March 1941 when he was posted to No.9 Group Headquarters at Barton Hall, Preston. Finally in July 1941 he was given command of No.615 (Surrey) Squadron and awarded a Bar to the DFC in October 1941. The following month Denys was shot down by flak and picked up by an Air Sea Rescue Launch off Dunkirk. In December 1941 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) and was sent to the United States, which had just entered the war. Upon his return in March 1942 he was given the command of the first Typhoon Wing based at Duxford and after many months of problems with the new aircraft the squadron started offensive operations in August 1942 during the Dieppe operation.

In October 1942 Gillam attended Staff College for three months, then in February 1943 he was posted to No.12 Group Headquarters and then went on to form the Special Low attack Instructors School at Milfield. In July 1943 he formed No.83 Group but was then posted to the Command and General Staff School at Fort Worth Texas, returning in November 1943 to command No.146 Wing. He subsequently took command of 20 Sector 2nd Tactical Air Force (TAF) in April 1944. In August 1944 Denys was awarded the Bar to his DSO and in October of that year he led an attack on the German Staff Conference at Dordrecht, which killed many of the senior staff of the 15th Army. He was finally posted to No.84 Group as Group Captain Ops, making his last operational sortie on the 25th April 1945.

Gillam was awarded the second bar to his DSO in January 1945 and left the RAF later that year as a Group Captain. He joined No.616 (South Yorkshire) Squadron Royal Auxiliary Air Force as a Flight Lieutenant when it reformed at RAF Finingley in 1947. He finally left in 1950 to join the family carpet business Homfray Carpets in Halifax were he became Chairman. He went on to be Deputy Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire and retired to become a gentleman farmer in his beloved Yorkshire. He died suddenly of a heart attack in 1991.

Pilot Officer Alois Vasatko (83233)

Alois Vasatko was born on the 25th August 1908 in Celakovice. Having been a teacher he started military service, which he finished in spring 1929, and eventually moved to the Army Academy. After qualifying as a Lieutenant of Artillery he was posted to the 54th Artillery Regiment in Bratislava. In October 1935 he was promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant and qualified as an Air Observer. Between 1937 & 1938 he trained as a pilot becoming operational on the 1st March 1939.

After the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, Vasatko with a group of friends crossed into Poland on the 13th July 1939. From there he moved to France. When WWII began, ‘Amos’ (nickname of Vasatko) was posted on the 11th September 1939 to fighter school at Chartres, training on Curtiss Hawk 75A aircraft, and on the 11th May 1940 joined the famous Grouppe de Chasse I/5. On the 17th May he had his first successful air battle when he shared the shooting down of a Bf109 and took part in the shooting down of a Henschel Hs126. Then he was appointed as a flight commander. On the 12th June 1940, he took part in the destroying of twelve enemy aircraft three of which he shot down alone. During this dogfight in which he shot down a Heinkel He111, he was slightly wounded and on the 9th and 15th June he crash landings twice. He became the most successful Czechoslovak fighter pilot in the battle of France. At the end of June he flew together with his unit to North Africa. His total account of incidents with Germany aircraft in France was 15 destroyed of which 10 were shared, 4 probables of which 2 were shared and 1 damaged. On the 5th August 1940, he arrived at Cardiff on board the ‘David Livingstone’.

He moved via the Czech camp at Cholmodeley Park to the Czech depot at Cosford where he joined the RAFVR with the rank of Pilot Officer. On the 5th September he was posted to the newly created No.312 (Czech) Fighter Squadron as part of the first group of pilots. On the 12th December 1940 he was made the flight commander of ‘B’ Flight and on the 5th June 1941 he became its Commanding Officer. No.312 was part of Kenley Wing, they took part in the first offensive flights over occupied France, and on the 9th July, Vasatko probably shot down a Bf109 and damaged another.

Promoted to command the Exeter Wing by mid-1942, he helped with the organisation of the Czechoslovak Fighter Wing, which consisted of No's 310, 312 and 313 Squadron’s. During an escort of Boston’s over Cherbourg on the 3rd June he probably shot down an Fw190. Then came the fatal day, of the 23rd June 1942 when the Czech Wing escorted Boston’s on a raid against an airfield in Morlaix. During their return near the coast of England, No.312 was attacked by a group of six Fw190 from above. Vasatko tried to manoeuvre to a better position for the fight but his Spitfire Mk.VB collided with an attacking aircraft. Both planes then crashed into sea.

Alois Vasatko had been awarded many Czechoslovak and Allied orders and medals. The Czechoslovak Order of the White Lion, the Czechoslovak War Cross 1939, French Legion d’honneur – Chevalier, French War Cross and the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) which he obtained on the day of his death. On the 7th March 1992, the President of Czechoslovak republic ordered Alois Vasatko to be promoted to the rank of Major General in memoriam.

Sergeant Josef Stehlik (104693)

Josef Stehlik was born on the 23rd March 1915, in Pikarec Czechoslovakia. He started pilot training at the Elementary Pilot School in Prague in 1936. He served as pilot and instructor with No.3 Air Regiment and was promoted to Sergeant. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he crossed into Poland on the 5th June 1939 and then onto France.

After arriving in France he joined the Foreign Legion at the end of August 1939. When WWII began he was transferred to Chartres for retraining. On the 1st December 1939, he was posted to Groupe de Chasse III/3 and took part in the air battle of France. During this time Stehlik shot down four enemy aircraft and shared in the shooting down of four more. As the Germans advanced he flew to Africa and then sailed from Casablanca to England. On the 5th September 1940, as a Sergeant he joined the newly formed No.312 (Czech) Squadron at Duxford.

After the squadron victory on 8th October, he claimed a probable Bf109 shot down and another damaged plus another Ju88 shared. He left operational duty in October 1941, and became an instructor training pilots at Hullavington and then in Canada. In April 1943 he returned to No.312 Squadron where he flew many operations over occupied Europe. In January 1944 he moved to the Soviet Union together with a group of 20 Czech pilots. After training on Soviet La-5 fighters, he was posted in September 1944 to Slovakia as commander of the 1st Czechoslovak Fighter Regiment. He added to his score one Ju88 and a share of a Ju87. He destroyed two more aircraft on the ground, five trucks, a locomotive, and three other vehicles. Following this he was then involved with the forming of 1st Czechoslovak Air Division where he was promoted to second in command of the 2nd Fighter Regiment. He was awarded the Czechoslovak War Cross 1939, Czechoslovak Medal for Bravery, and the French War Cross.

In post-war life Captain Stehlik took part in the creating of the new Czechoslovak Air Force. At first he was the commander of a retraining course on Bf109G aircraft and at the end of 1945 the commander of a course of instructors for the Army Air Academy.

In 1948 when he was discharged from the army he was arrested for a reason, which was not too clear, but after a year as there was no evidence against him, he was acquitted. In 1964 he was finally rehabilitated and got back his rank and returned to the army. He eventually retired as a Colonel in the Air Force, and died suddenly on the 30th May 1991.


Yellow 1 flown by Flight Lieutenant Gillam was a Hawker Hurricane Mk.I serial number P2575 coded DU-P. During the engagement on the 8th October, Gillam fired 2,400 rounds, and his aircrafts windscreen was damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft was flown by various training units and was eventually struck off charge on 23rd May 1944.

Yellow 2 flown by Pilot Officer Vasatko was a Hawker Hurricane Mk.I serial number L1926 coded DU-J. One of the oldest Mk Is still in frontline service by the autumn of 1940, fabric-winged L1926 had originally been issued to No.3 Squadron at Kenley as long ago as April 1939. Part of the first batch of nine Hurricanes (all elderly L-prefixed aircraft) delivered to the newly-formed No.312 Squadron at Duxford on the last day of August 1940. During the engagement on the 8th October, Vasatko fired 144 rounds. The aircrafts exhaust manifold was damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft was transferred to No.55 Operation Training Unit (OTU) and crashed on landing at Usworth on 15th April 1941.

Yellow 3 flown by Sergeant Stehlik was a Hawker Hurricane Mk.1 serial number L1807 coded DU-X. During the engagement on the 8th October, Stehlik fired 504 rounds and his aircrafts fuel tank was damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft also went to No.55 Operation Training Unit (OTU) and crashed on 8th March 1941 at Usworth.


The details of this incident have been compiled from the published works of David J. Smith, Nick Wotherspoon, Derrick Pratt & Mike Grant. From Monty Lister’s Radio Merseyside interview with Helmut Brückmann. Information supplied by Helmut Brückmann son Ekkehart, and Helmut Weth son Reinhard along with information available on the internet.

Photographs and graphics are from the collections of David J. Smith, Zdenek Hurt and Bill Housley

My grateful thanks to all. Colin Schroeder

There were many images in this article sent to me, but I am having major problems getting them to transfer from a word doc to an image. Maybe one day eh???

 The entire written contents of this page are copyright Colin Schroeder ©

At 4pm on 8 October 1940 a Junkers approached from over the Irish Sea and flew up the Mersey, heading for Ellesmere Port. Three Hurricanes of the Czechoslovak 321 Squadron took off from Speke and crowds saw them attack an enemy bomber. Flt. Lt. DE Gilham, Pilot Officer A Vasatko and Sgt. J Stenik were the crews. The battle lasted eleven minutes. One of the Czech pilots, Sgt. Hanzicek, was killed when he baled out too low and his fighter crashed into the Mersey. The Junkers came down in a field in Bromborough with engines on fire. As it bumped along, two 500 lb. bombs fell out. Smoke was pouring out of the port engine. Two of the crew pulled themselves out and ran behind the plane. Gateman Harry Gill was first on the scene (Mr Gill was later to become Mayor of Bebington). The two Germans were well-built men and he saw them bending over a third who was lying on the ground. Without a care, Harry hurried across and seized them by their epaulettes and demanded their guns. They handed them over. Being in the uniform of a Port Sunlight Gateman, they may have thought that he was a sort of Policeman. Two others arrived a Mr Thompson and Mr Reid. Mr Thompson took charge of the two Luftwaffe men. One was 19 years old and had already made five raids over Merseyside. They were marched off to the Gatehouse where they were held in custody until the Military arrived. The member of the crew that was on the ground had suffered a broken thigh bone and was in pain. Harry and Mr Reid looked around and found a shunter's pole and bound his leg to it as a temporary splint. The pilot of the plane had been killed by machine gun fire and had fallen forward over the controls. Close at hand was a detailed map of Merseyside with the storage tanks at Port Sunlight and Bromborough Dock clearly marked as targets. The crew had inflated a rubber dinghy as the pilot had hoped to bring his plane down in the river.
The RAF officials were very interested in the bombsight on the plane which they had not seen before. This was removed and was taken to the Gatehouse to be collected later. Another of the Dorniers was piloted by Herr Gunther and after bombing Gladstone Dock was hit over New Brighton by the AA guns and the plane crashed in the River Dee where the crew swam ashore and gave themselves up to a Policeman. Feldwebel Gunther Unger was pilot of a Junkers 88. He approached the Mersey at 10,000 feet to attack the shipping. Observer Feldwebel 'Ast' Meier was operating the Lotfe bombsight. They released four 550lb. and ten 110lb. bombs as the pilot noticed flames behind the starboard engine. He knew he would not be able to make home so he ordered his crew to bale out and Unger headed out to crash in the sea so that there would be nothing for the British to find. The plane was flying well and he considered whether he should try to get home in it but the blaze got worst. He parachuted out of the stricken plane. All the crew landed safely, save Unger. He was in the water and although it was shallow, it took him over an hour to wade to the Wallasey sands where he was confronted by a member of the Home Guard and gave himself up. Hardy Voght was a Flight Engineer who flew on 45 bombing raids including Merseyside until he was shot down over Hertfordshire in April 1941 and became a prisoner of war. In 1991, he returned to Wallasey to see the remains of the engine of his plane that is kept in the Military Aviation Museum at Point Rock Battery at New Brighton.
In September 2016 I was sent, by email, a copy of the JU88 Manual. I reproduce it here for your information
JU88 (and possibly the cover for these instructions)


1. General

Ju 88 is "one man's airplane" when speaking about flying it, as one man, the pilot, is able to use and oversee the engine and flying controls during normal flights.

Only during long-distance flights manual pump has to be used in transfer pumping of lubricant, and in special cases manual operation of fuel valves and pump in transfer pumping of fuel is tasked to two other men (wireless operator or machine gunner).

Table of performance values for the plane (see figures 7, 8 and 9) in question can be found in it's slot in the upper middle part of the instrument panel.

Maximal permissible values for engines are marked in the indicators and instruments with red line or self illuminating markings.

Different controls have explanation signs.

2. Flying Characteristics

The airplane is stabile on all axis', and fully capable of instrument flying.

Rudder forces and rudder effectiveness are balanced and adequate for all (also single-engined) all states of flight.

When the airplane is pulled in to excessive angle of attack (either with landing flaps closed or fully open), the attitude of the plane will only change laterally nose down. If the speed is reduced to value V-landing, the approaching attitude change will manifest itself as vibration in the elevator.

Rate of descend with landing flaps hilly open is

Approx. 20 m/sec (Ju 88 A-1, A-5 instead 15 m/sec)

Rate of descend with landing flaps closed, is

Approx. 15 m/sec (Ju 88 A-1, A-5: 10-12 m/sec)

Rudder effectiveness when in excessive angle of attack, at speed of 180kmh, is adequate. Banking turns with flaps extended are fully possible.

In turning flight only small deflection of rudder is required. Amount of banking is determined by the use of turn and bank instrument.

Trim changes when adjusting landing flaps and also when retracting and lowering the undercarriage cause such a small lateral moment in the entire speed range, that it can be easily compensated with small elevator response.

When adjusting the elevator trim plane slightly tail heavy.

Difference in the flying attitude on the other hand when landing flaps are closed and on the other hand when the landing flaps are hilly opened and elevator is set in the corresponding position (landing- and cruise positions), is large. Therefore when gliding special attention has to be paid on the speed indicator.

Aerobatics are prohibited (see paragraph "Flight in inclined plane")

3. Hydraulic system

Hydraulic system configuration is such that when using several devices simultaneously, only one of them functions at a time.

Using the so called "priority switch" makes it possible to always give priority to undercarriage operation.

After each operation of hydraulic devices the operation switch has to be returned to 0- position, i.e. middle position, not including the dive break switch which only has the positions "closed" ("Ein") and "open" ("Aus"). In this case position "closed" ("Ein") equals to zero-position.

4. Loading the plane

Before boarding the plane it is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that the loading of the plane has been done correctly and according to loading instructions.

Load-out sheets for the airplane and different load-out options are located in a case behind the wireless operator's seat (see also figures 10-23).

ATTENTION: If the regulations are not followed it will lead in Ju 88 planes contrary to previous plane types, with great probability to structural breakdown, due to the existence of alternating loads exceptionally far from the centre of gravity.

When batteries, wing racks or something else (for test flights at the factory or during transfer flights) is removed from the plane, it will become nose heavy over the permissible value. In such case counter weights must be placed in the rearmost bomb-bay or inside the fuselage according to the loading regulations (tied in place). This has to be noted especially on Ju 88 C-6 airplanes. See also part I C and part III B 3f.

5. Crew

Crew consists of four men:

1. Pilot of the airplane (Commander of the plane), on pilots seat.

2. Bombardier (Co-pilot), in "A-position" ("A-Stand").

3. Wireless operator, in "B-position".

4. Mg-operator, in "C-position"

Crew of the Ju 88 C-6 airplane consists of three men:

1. Pilot of the airplane (Commander of the plane), on pilots seat.

2. Bombardier (Co-pilot), in "A-position" or "C-position"

3. Wireless operator, in "B-position".


The whole crew is wearing light summer overalls with summer flying hoods, with microphones for speaking- (EiV-) apparatus.


Pilot and wireless operator: parachutes for sitting on. Bombardier and mg-operator: parachutes on back.

6. Flight readiness report

Crew chief must give the pilot of the airplane a report according to the "Flight readiness table", that the plane in question, with engines not started, is ready for flying operations, (see part I "Flight readiness report"). Pilot uses spot-checks to verify that the report is correct. If there is no trained responsible mechanic present, pilot can perform the flight readiness checks himself.



1. Entry

Crew enters the airplane when engines are not running.

Rearmost part of the gondola is opened (C-position) with a key, entry using the ladder. When entering the airplane only using the handles and footholds for the purpose is allowed.

Attention has to paid that none of the switches, levers or adjustment handles are either pushed or caught in by clothing when entering. And thus turned or switched to unintended positions.

Pilot boards the plane first. Machine gun operator pulls the ladder in and puts them in collapsed in the sheet metal storage in the C-position.

The gondola gun mount is forcefully pulled up with the help of the arrestor rope: the locking lever in the inside is turned right as far as the red mark.

2. Re-checking of the position of flying and plane controls

The pilot of the airplane checks the the automatic fuses in the in the hisebox above the C-position when boarding.

A 11 fuse switches (not counting the switch "external circuit" ("Aussenbord") and also 2 switches "VS automatic left engine" ("VS Automatik links Antrieb") and "VS automatic right engine" ("VS Automatik rechts Antrieb") are switched on and if it will be a high altitude flight the 4 oxygen bottle valves in the left side wall of the gondola are open.

All other switches can be switched on if necessary on the fuse box on the pilot's left side or from the radio equipment.

Hydraulic auxiliary switch for emergency use of undercarriage, undercarriage bay doors, dive breaks and landing flaps must be in positions 3 and 5.

Pilot fastens his seat belt.

The lever actuating the Bowden-line for adjusting the back belt is located in front of the seating bucket.

The seat is adjusted according the body size in to the best possible position, that is, to a position with best visibility and best possible operation of rudder and all levers (lever in the left lower side of the seat is pressed outside when adjusting the longitude distance of the seat, and lever on the right side of the seat is pressed outside when adjusting the height of the seat.

ATTENTION: When adjusting the seat one must not accidentally push the bomb jettison lever.)

Side rudder pedals, right and left, are set to equal height (switch in front of the foot pump is raised). By rotating the body it must be possible to reach hill rudder deflection and also it must be possible to brake simultaneously, also it must, when rudder centered, be possible to reach adequate steering deflection with the steering yoke.

All control movements must happen unhindered and rudder deflection must match the pedal movement.

"Fine - coarse" altimeter must be set according to the starting place to show the the height from the sea-level (QFF).

Accuracy altimeter is set to indicate zero on the field(QFE).

Trim tab position indicators (on the left panel) are in the middle marking (will be set to red marks only before diving).

When taking off with especially high take-off weight corrections are made already before start by adjusting tail-heaviness by with elevator trim tabs. Trim tab hand cranks have effect in the same direction to which they rotate.

Levers oft he undercarriage and landing flaps are in the 0-position.

Switch of the dive-brakes is in position "Closed" ("Ein") (equals to 0-position).

If the outside temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius Pitot-pipe heating is switched on.

De-icing equipment operating levers for the left and right wings and elevator are in the position "Closed" ("Zu").

Lever for air filtering is in position "Suction through the filter" ("Ansaugluft Gefiltert").

Supercharger operating lever in position "Automatic" (during instrumental take-off it will be set to that position only when 3500m is reached.

Primer pump lever is in position "Normal" ( also see paragraph C 5a and 5b).

Throttle lever must be tightened as much that it is heavy to move, and there is no chance that it could move by itself.

RPM selector lever must be set to "RPM increases" ("Drehzahl grosser").

It is inspected that the lid of the emergency fuel jettison switch in the switch box, as well as the switch of external fuel tank jettison and switch for rubber dinghy release are all equipped with lead seals.

Automatic direction steering (low left on the instrument panel) is in position 1, direction setter on the control yoke is set to 0.

Emergency bomb release switch must be sealed. Fall switch is locked.

Engine start is performed as explained in paragraph 1 C 8.1 Then it must be noted:

a. When temperature is below + 5 Celsius cold starting method is to be used.

b. Note the regulations for warming engines up if cold starting method is used.

c. Note the regulations for starting in the arctic areas.

ATTENTION: After starting the engines dive-break switch is turned on once and then the pull-out button on the left panel is pressed (not the bomb release switch).

If the take-off is delayed, engines have to be stopped.

3. Taxiing for take-off

Radiator flaps are fully opened.

ATTENTION: Normal time that it takes from the position "Closed" ("Zu") to position "Open" ("Auf") and the other way around is approx. 8 sec. The longest permitted operating time for the cowl flap engine is 15 sec. Machine gun operator is sitting on the folding seat facing the direction of flight. Laying in the gondola is forbidden. Entry hatch has to be closed during all taxiing (otherwise gondola will be filled with sand). Taxiing is performed, if at all possible, by using the engines and the rudder. During taxiing it is inspected that the wheels can rotate freely and the brakes are not braking independently. When the take-off weight is greater taxiing is performed with utmost caution and only at slow speed; constant turning is to be avoided. Turning on one wheel is prohibited.

Brakes have to be spared: braking has to be interrupted every now and then (excessive overheat).

When taxiing elevator is kept in the middle position (not cooled) to reduce the tail reaction. Turn and bank instrument is inspected. If airplane has been started with the co Id start method, the temperature of engine oil when taxiing or longer duration idling must not exceed over 30Y In exceptional cases it may be allowed to reach 70KC (in winter time) or +851C (in the summer time - half thinned lubricant). If temperature exceeds 701C or 851C, the take-off has to be, if possible, aborted, until the temperature decreases.


1. Take-off

ATTENTION: The VS-11 propeller that is installed on the airplane has a pitch governor, which will keep the RPM constant.

WARNING: The manifold pressure will rise very rapidly when throttle is increased.

Tail wheel is self-centering. No locking.

Pitot pipe heating is switched on, if air is very moist and temperature is below 01C (switch to the left of the pilot).

Fuel pump selector (FBH) levers are in position "PI + P2". Valve battery switch A is in position II.

Both feeding pumps "Fuel left" ("Kraftstoff links") and "Fuel right" ("Kraftstoff rechts") are engaged.

Landing flaps are in the take-off position (251) (lever in middle position, with the old indicator and yellow lamps on, with nine-lamp-indicator).

Elevator and rudder must have unrestricted movement.

Automatic direction steering is not switched on.

RPM selector switch is in the limiter "RPM increases" ("Drehzahl grosser").

Enricher switch "Normal". Throttle is pushed forward until the limitor "Start" ("Start")

1 min power

nmax= 26 00 +20 /.50 RPM

pmax= 1,40 +/. 0,03 ATA

Excessive RPM is evened out by turning the RPM selector switch to direction "RPM decreases" ("Drehzahl kleiner"). Such event has to be reported to crew chief immediately after landing.

The veering out of course has to be corrected by asymmetric throttling.

The airplane is pushed smoothly and slowly to level attitude and then hel d there until air speed indicator is showing the slowest necessary speed for the current loading.

Only after that it is slowly pulled off the ground. The moment of list-off is noted.

The rolling distance needed for the take-off, when the effect of cross- wind is not taken into consideration, is for different take-off weights:

                 Distance on ground         Overall distance over 20 m obstacle

12.5 ton                570         1280

13.0 ton )airplane             650         1350

13.75 ton )oberloaded   750         1420

Take-off during day with overloaded airplane is only allowed from concrete surfaced airfield, up to 13,75 tones from a prepared airfield or hard, even surfaces grass airfield.

Take-off during night is only allowed with 13 ton weight.

Additionally the numbers for take-off roll given by Rechlin have to be noted (see appendix in the end of this part).

Lift-off speed:

Va= 175 km/h    when take-off weight is 13 000 kg

Va= 180 km/h    when take-off weight is 13 750 kg

With smaller take-off weights the lift-off speed is a little smaller.

When sufficient altitude has been reached (approx. 30-50 m), the throttle is moved from the position "Start" ("Start") to position "Climb power" ("Steig leistung") and at the same time propeller pitch lever to the according RPM.

For 30 min. time power can remain (climb and combat power)

n=2400 RPM


Propeller pitch governor will thus keep the selected RPM in all states of flight, if they are within the limits of propeller mechanism.

2. Retracting the undercarriage. (Also opening and closing the landing gear bay doors.)

Undercarriage may remain lowered only when indicated air speed is below 265 km/h. Shortly after taking-off wheel brakes are depressed gently and the undercarriage is retracted.

Undercarriage operating lever (instrument panel is set to position "In" ("Ein").

Both undercarriage halves and the tale wheel are fully retracted and locked as well as the landing gear bay door closed, when the signal lamp indicates the retraction complete, i.e. the upper red signal lamps of the nine-lamp indicator are lit (in older airplanes the indicator apparatus).

Hydraulic oil system pressure gauge (in the engine cowling) shows after retraction approx. 85-95 ATA rise of pressure. The operating lever is turned to middle position (0 position). Pressure gauge will return to 15-22 ATA.

Retraction time (undercarriage and undercarriage bay doors) is about 15-20 seconds. Early retraction of the undercarriage immediately after the take-off will cause altitude gain.

3. Take-off with start rockets (If installed.)

During engine warm up ran, from a pilot's signal, special mechanic will open the pressure air valve of start rockets.

Special mechanic will give the all clear sign for taxiing. Before take-off the start rockets which are turned on. All signal lamps including the red lamps must then turn on in the start rocket switch box.

Landing flaps, trim tabs and propellers etc. are adjusted in the take-off without the start rockets.

After about 10 sec. of take-off roll equaling 100-150 m distance, the bombardier will depress the button in the start rocket switch box or in the right hand side instrument panel thus switching on the take-off aids. Then the lower signal lamp will turn off.

If take-off has to be aborted for one reason or another it can be done by turning the switch in the start rocket box or in the right hand side instrument panel to position "Off' ("Aus"), thus immediately switching off the rockets.

Under no circumstance it is allowed to turn on the start rockets that have been once turned off. Undercarriage is retracted immediately after take-off. The airplane must not be pulled too hard because after 30 sec. the thrust will be reduced and the airplane pulled on to too high angle of attack will be prone to stall.

When the rockets have emptied 2x125 kg of extra weight and also additional air resistance. (Must be noted in turns and when opening landing flaps.)

Rockets are dropped by the bombardier at not less than 125 m from the ground.

Release lever (which is kept behind pilot's seat) is put on its place to right, low next to the pilot's

seat and the lever is pulled up.

Rockets are not allowed under no circumstance to be released when in use.

Nevertheless the pilot can at any moment without any danger release the rockets either using them up or switching them of before the release.

Only in emergency the release will be done at less than 150 m, because then the parachute will not

have time to open and the rockets will be broken.

Rockets have been properly jettisoned when the markers disappear.

If after operating the release lever one or both signal lamps are still on, the airplane is briefly pulled when holding the release lever pulled up. If the rockets do not drop the flight has to be aborted. Landing with the rockets aboard will be executed ordinarily as long as the maximum landing weight is not exceeded.

After releasing the rockets the rocket switch box switch has to be set to position "Off ("Aus").

4. Climbing

Landing flaps are raised to OY position after retracting the undercarriage and when safe altitude is reached.

Speeds at most efficient climbing flight:

Va = 250 km/h close to sea-level

Va = 240 km/h at 6000m altitude.

Smallest speed Va = 230 km/h.

No later than after 30 minutes the throttle and along with it, the propeller pitch lever, must be returned to the position of normal power:

Up to 6500m altitude

n = 2250 RPM

p= 1.15 ATA

Over 6500m altitude

n = 2400 RPM

When initial climb has ended and approximately 500m altitude has been reached, must the switches right of the machine gun operator position "VS automatic, left engine" ("VS Automatik, links Antrieb") and "VS automatic, right engine" ("VS Automatik, rechts Antrieb") must be pressed.

Enriching lever is kept during climb in "normal" position of the normal - rich alternatives until the rated altitude (of the super charger).

When over the rated altitude and maximum power for combat is needed, Enriching lever(lever left of pilots seat) must be kept in position "Rich" ("Reich in Hohe"). After the combat has ended lever is set again to "normal" position.

Changing super charger gear

Gear change happens automatically in the position "Automatic" ("Automatik").

a. In climbing flight the change from low gear to high gear happens at 3,0 km +/.300m altitude.

b. In descending flight the change from high gear to low gear happens even 400m lower than the change happened in climbing flight.

c. Depending from the position of the throttle lever. If throttle is reduced in 3500m altitude, the automatic control will change the gear to low when ATA is 0,7 - 0,85 and RPM n = 2400. At higher altitude with equal throttle setting ATA is respectively lower. When throttle is increased again the high gear is automatically engaged at approximately same position where it was disengaged.

If the gear change happens in the engines happens at unequal height, the automatic control has to be repaired (on the ground) in such way that both engines will switch gears nearly simultaneously.

If one of the engines switches too early, the gear switching lever is held switched until the second engine switches gears.

When manually switching gears it is imperative to reduce the throttle in advance. After the gear change has happened the power is returned again to cruise setting.

When switching from low gear to high gear manifold pressure can rise over the permitted until the adjusting mechanism catches up.

Manifold pressure adjuster

Manifold pressure, when once set, will remain automatically the same all through the climb without adjusting the throttle, until the gear changing altitude is reached. At that time one must not compensate the drop with throttle or the manifold pressure will rise too high after the gear-change.

Automatic direction steering

Automatic direction steering must not be switched on until 300m altitude has been reached.

Operating temperatures and pressures

a. Temperature of retuning cooler fluid

It must not drop below 401C (when descending), and it is mostly between 80 - 1001C in cruising and following values should not be normally exceeded:

Altitude km        0-1          4              8

YC           110         100         80

Limit for evaporation of the fluid is a few degrees above these temperatures. If the limit is exceeded, the circulation of the cooler fluid does not stop (contrary to Jumo 211 A, B and C engines). In special cases e.g. on hot summer days, while climbing, is the temperature of the returning cooler fluid allowed to rise up to 1201C (for short periods, approximately 10 min).

In normal situations the temperature has to be kept within the limits of the table above. The pilot of the aeroplane is warned about the of the temperature of the returning cooler fluid rising above 1201C by the steam formation; cooler fluid loss is small at that point.

When flying in such way that the steam is formed, throttle must not be reduced to idle position with one pull, because then the loss of engine RPM causes the pressure in cooling system to drop below of what is needed to keep up the main circulation, resulting in very heavy increase in steam formation and pressure build-up.

If the forming of steam is noticed at temperatures which are below the do-not-exceed values stated above, the breathing valve of the of the cooling system must be turned (in front of the cooler fluid container).

The problem has to be declared to the crew chief after landing.

When adjusting the cooler fluid temperature, also engine oil temperature has to be observed. The values given in the following paragraph must not be lower or higher than stated.

b. Temperatures for returning oil

The gauge is located in the engine cowling.

Temperatures must not be less than 30YC (when using the cold start method) nor more than 105YC.

In cruise approximately 80YC.

Adjustment happens automatically with thermostat.

If the maximal allowable temperatures for cooler fluid and engine oil are exceeded, cowl flaps have to be opened or engine power reduced.

When using the cold start method the engine oil temperatures are checked only after about one hour after take-off (when fuel has evaporated), although during this time, if possible, 701C(in winter) or 85IC(in summer) should not be exceeded.

c. Engine oil pressure

During warm up run of the engines (on the ground) minimum of 5,5 ATA, but not over 9 ATA Lowest pressure at rated altitude (high gear at n = 2400 RPM and oil temperature 60 - 701C) is 4,0 ATA. When using the cold start method reduction to 3,5 ATA is allowed.

d. Fuel pressure

1,0 - 2,0 ATA. When also fuel transfer pumps are switched on, it should rise to value 2,0 - 2,5 ATA. Fuel pressure must not drop above rated altitude below 1,0 ATA.

When fuel pressure drops to below 1,0 ATA the fuel booster pumps are electrically switched on. It has to be noted, that if these are only switched to PI, despite the switched on fuel transfer pumps, the pressure in P2 can drop already at low altitude.

Otherwise the fuel booster pumps will only be switched on during take-off, dive and landing (because of the possibility of abortion, and resulting pull and take-off).

After each enemy contact pumps are checked by first switching on P1, and then P2, so that damaged fuel lines could be immediately discovered.

5. Cruise

Enriching lever is in position "Normal".

a) Cruising speeds when mixture control is in position "Lean" ("Arm") and enriching lever in position "Normal":


Altitude                V-w        Supercharger     P2((ATA)              n (RPM)

300         350         low gear               1.15        2250

2000       390         low gear               1.15        2250

4000       400         high gear             1.15        2250

6000       400         high gear             1.10 - 1.15            2250

b) Maximum speeds when mixture control is in position "Rich" ("Reich") and enriching lever in position "Normal":


Altitude                V-w        Supercharger     P2((ATA)              n (RPM)

300         375         low gear               1.25        2400

2000       410         low gear               1.25        2400

4000       415         high gear             1.25        2400

6000       425         high gear             1.15 - 1.25            2400

In points a and b: the change of enriching to position "Rich" ("Reich") will happen automatically when the lever is set to position "Normal" and manifold pressure reaches 1,17 - 1,23 ATA.

Consumption of engine oil at 2250 RPM and manifold pressure at 1,15 ATA, is at the maximum ca. 12 liters per hour per engine.

Fuel consumption measuring (left out from the newer variants)

Switch in the left part of the instrument panel.

Instrument in the left part.

The following differences between indicated left and right engine consumptions are allowed in the enriching lever is in position "Normal":

When P2 = 0,8 and 1,0 ATA up to 20 1/h

When P2 = 1,25 ATA up to 40 1/h

Fig. 1 Fuel and lubricant quantity gauges


Automated switch between normal - rich happens with manifold pressure 1,17 - 1,23 ATA

All other values:

Fuel consumption


Best flying altitudes

RPM's and manifold pressures, and

Ranges and flying times

Are available for Ju 88 A-4 and it's variants can be found in "flying time table", made by flight research centre Rechlin.

Measurements of the fuel and oil quantities (see picture 1 )

Two instruments next to the selector switch on the right wall.

a. Measuring the quantity of fuel (scale for flying position), when switch is in

Position 1 : Quantity of fuel in forward fuselage tank is shown by the instrument on the right.

Position 2 : Left and right outer wing fuel tanks can be read simultaneously from the instruments on left and right.

Position 3 : Left and right inner wing fuel tanks can be read simultaneously from the instruments on left and right.

The quantity of fuel in two external, and rearward fuselage, fuel tanks is not measured.

b. Measuring the quantity of oil (scale for flying position), when switch is in

Position 4 : Left engine oil container quantity is shown on the left instrument.

Position 5 : Right engine oil container quantity is shown on the left instrument.

The quantity of oil in auxiliary oil tank is not measured.

In both points a. and b. measurements are imprecise.

Fuel intake to the engines happens only from both inner wing tanks (feeding tanks). Surveying of both of these tanks must be frequent. If fuel consumption is uneven, fuel amount can be balanced with the use of fuel transfer pump.

Fuel transfer pumping and connecting the tanks.

(See pictures 2,3 and 4)

1. use in normal situations.

In take-off the connection must be such, that both engines are fed from the inner wing tanks on their respective wings, their feeding tanks. Valve battery switch A in position II. If the aeroplane is equipped with jettisonable external tanks, one must not pump fuel from them to feeding tank at the earliest 20 min after taking-off, because otherwise the fuel will go to waste by leaking through the tanks air vent.


1. Switch box

2. Enriching switch

3. Fuel emergency jettisoning - forward fuselage tank

4. Fuel emergency jettisoning - rearward fuselage tank

5. Pull-out button

6. Two switches for fuel feeding pumps (fuel tank pumps)

7. Switches 1,2,3,5,6,8 for fuel transfer pumps

8. Transfer pumping diagram

9. Signal lamp for lubricant tank filling up

10. Signal lamp for fuel tank emptying

11. Signal lamp for fuel tank filling up

Fig. 2 Switch box for fuel transfer pumping and fuel emergency jettisoning

In normal situations the fuel has to be pumped only after the fuel level in both tanks should have dropped to 200 liters (that is after ca. 50 min of flying time).

Time taken by the transfer pumping of 300 liters is ca. 18 minutes.

If only one external fuel tank is carried, both engines have to be connected to that feeding tank (valve battery switch in position A I or III) which is fed by the external tank.

When both external tanks are empty, the radio operator jettisons, when in level flight at cruise speed or slower, the tanks by pulling the red tank jettison lever (between fuselage frames 8a and 8b) with force.

The aeroplane may be damaged if the jettisoning of the tanks is done at higher air speed.

Transfer pumping order.

The following order for transfer pumping has to be strictly followed.

Both drop tanks switches - 1 and 2

Rearward fuselage tank switch - 8

Wing tanks switches - 5 and 6

Forward fuselage tank switch - 3

Transfer pumping switch box is located on the left wall behind the fuse box. Switching the tanks (see picture 4)

Valve battery switch A.

(Down low in center at the frame 9) Is used for switching on fuel feeding lines to the engines.

Valve battery switch B.

(down low to right at frame 8, close fuel emergency hand pump) Is used for transfer pumping from both fuselage tanks.

a) Only to the left feeding tank

b) Simultaneously to both feeding tanks

c) Only to the right feeding tank

And also from left side outer wing tank as in points a) and b) and from right side outer wing tank as in points b) and c).

Valve battery switch C.

(up on the right, at frame 9) Is used in fuel transfer pumping in special (with hand pump) cases.

a) From left side outer wing tank

b) From forward fuselage fuel tank

c) From right side outer wing tank.

Also used for transfer pumping the fuel from forward fuselage tank in normal flight (position II).

Transfer pumping and switching the fuel lines, when one or both jettisonable fuel tanks are empty, as follows:

1. Switching the fuel lines when transfer pumping. Valve battery switches A, B and C are in normal position II.

Fig. 3 The switch box for fuel transfer pumping and the fuel transfer pumping diagram

Both fuel pump selectors are in position "PI + P2".

2. Transfer pumping is done with the electrical transfer pumps

a. After first warning of emptying of the feeding tanks. Switch 8 is switched on, the contents of rearward fuselage fuel tank is pumped simultaneously to left and right feeding tanks. When the w a r n i n g of the feeding tanks filling up comes, fuel transfer pump is switched off until 10 minutes, and then again switched on, until the rearward fuselage tank is empty.

b. After second warning of emptying of one of the feeding tanks.

Switches 5 and 6 are switched on. In this case the contents of left and rig lit outer wing tanks is pumped to respective feeding tanks.

When the filling up warning comes, the transfer pumps are turned off, and swicthed on again after 20 minutes, and this is continued until both of the outer wing tanks have emptied.

c. After third warning of emptying of one of the feeding tanks

Switch 3 is switched on. In this case the contents of forward fuselage tank is pumped to respective feeding tanks. When the warning of the feeding tanks filling up comes, fuel transfer pump is switched off.

d. After fourth warning of emptying of one of the feeding tanks.

Switch 3 is switched on again. Fuel left in the forward fuselage tank is pumped to the feeding tanks.

3. Switching the fuel lines after transfer pumping.

If all transfer pumping between fuel tanks has been performed, it means:

Valve battery switches B and C are still in normal position.

Valve battery switch A is kept in the normal position II right until the next emptying warning.

Feeding tanks are flown empty singly, one by one.

a. After fifth warning of emptying of one of the feeding tanks.

Valve battery switch A is set to position I.

Both engines a re then fed from the left feeding tank.

Right hand side engine fuel pump selector (FB) switch (left on the

instrument panel) is set to position "PI".

Fuel pump selector switch then also closes other feeding line to the right engine. Close monitoring of the fuel content instruments is in such ca se absolutely necessary, (instrument switch in position

3. left instrument, upper readings).

b. When left feeding tank has been used for flying until it only has 5 0 litres left.

Fig. 4 Locations of valve battery switches A, B and C, and the manual fuel transfer pump lever

c. Valve battery switch A is set to position III.

Both e n g i n e s are then fed from the right feeding tank.

Both engine fuel pump selector (FB) switches are set to position "P1 + P2".

Selector then also closes other feeding line to the right engine. When doing this the left engine is also fed with the remaining 50 liters in the left feeding tank.

To note in point 3a.

Because of the possibility of erroneous indication on the fuel measuring instrument, it is possible that feeding from the left feeding tank is continued for too long time. Therefore it is imperative to follow the running of the engines closely, and at the first sight of engines running unevenly t o turn the valve battery switch A to position III, and continue the flight according to instructions in the point 3b.

The indicator below the pump switch box has , as mentioned before, warning indicators for filling up and emptying for both feeding tanks. Filling up warning (V), when tank has 3501.

Emptying warning (L), when tank has 1001.

When filling up warning turns on, transfer pumps have to be switched off, as otherwise fuel will be lead to tank breathing air pipes and wasted.

2. use in special situations, (transfer pumping with the hand pump)

If the electrical transfer pump is out of action for one reason or other, it is possible to pump manually the fuel from the forward fuselage tank and from the left and ri ght outer fuel tanks to the left or right feeding tanks.

The fuel in the rearward fuselage tank and in jettisonable tanks cannot be pumped manually to the feeding tanks.

The hand pump lever is located on the right fuselage wall down low at the frame 8a.

Manual pumping is performed by the machine gun operator, or by the wireless operator.

Pumping 300 liters manually will take:

at sea level         ca. 20 minutes

at 4000m altitude             ca. 25 minutes

Filling up signal has to be observed when pumping.

Transfer pumping order

a) both outer wing tanks

b) forward fuselage tank

Switching the tanks (see pictures 4 and 5)

With valve battery switches B and C.

Switch to the tank to pumped in is done with t switch C.

Position I: Left outer wing tank

Position II: Fuselage tank

Position III: Right outer wing tank

Distribution of the pumped fuel to the feeding with the valve battery switch B.

Position I: Left feeding tank, "Left" ("Links").

Position II: Both feeding tanks, "Left and right" ("Links und rechts").

Position III: Right feeding tank, "Right" ("Rechts").

Fig. 5 Fuel transfer pumping system for manual transfer pumping


That means that the pumping can be performed from both outer wing tanks to the feeding tank on the same side or on the opposite side, or to both feeding tanks simultaneously.

This possibility has to be remembered especially for the case when one of the feeding tanks is damaged.

Transfer pumping of engine oil.

Applies only if an auxiliary oil tank is installed in the left wing.

Transfer pumping can only be performed manually.

Manual pumping is performed by the machine gun operator, or by the wireless operator.

The switch of the tank and the hand pumping lever are located between the frames 8 and 8a on the left fuselage wall and above the left flying controls.

Transfer switch is set to the position of the tank to be transferred to.

When the main oil tank contents has been reduced to 30 litres, the transfer pumping is performed by pumping 5 liters at a time to both oil tanks (for achieving even distribution and taking possible single-engine flight in to account).

The instrument below the switch box also gives the filling up warning.

The two switches in the switch box "Feeding pumping" ("Forderpumpen"), "Lubricant left and lubricant right" (Schmierstoff links und Schmierstoff recths") for electrical pumping of oil into the engines are not switched on (switches aren't installed at all to newer switch boxes, see picture 5).

After transfer pumping of oil the transfer pumping switch has to be set to the position that was not used for pumping oil last. This will prevent the oil leaking back to the auxiliary tank.

Cockpit heating

Two pull handles have been installed to the left instrument panel between pilot's and wireless operator's seats.

Fully pulled out = warm air

Middle position =ventilation

Pushed down    =apparatus turned off

When frost appears electrical heating of the left windshield panel is switched on.

On the left side of the fuselage beside the instrument panel. Signal lamp must be on (only Ju 88 D-1).

If there is no heating equipment and frosting happens, or when in rain, the left most windshield panel has to be hilly opened and locked to the open position.

6. Flight in conditions where there is a risk of freezing.

Pitot-pipe heating has to be switched on. (switch to left from the pilot) Anti-freezing equipment has to be switched on.

a. Anti-freezing equipment of the elevator.

Operating switch on the instrument panel (frames 5a and 6) is switched to position "On" ("Auf').

b. Anti-freezing equipment of the wing.

Operating switch for right and left wings on the instrument panel (frames 6 and 7) is switched to position "On" ("Auf').

When the outside temperature is below OY the wing heating has to be switched on. The reason for this is the heating for the operating cylinder of the dive-brakes, and for the auxiliary oil tank and to the pipes leading to it.

c. Suction air apparatus (for tropic planes, not installed)

Operating switch can be switched to position "Suction air direct" ("Ansaugluft ungefiltert") only when air speed is less than 260km/h.

d. Anti-freezing equipment of the propellers.

Operating switch on the main panel has to be switched on.

Switch with operating lever is in the right side panel (frame 6).

2 positions: "Full" ("Voll") and "Half' ("Halb").

It has to be noted that the anti-freeze fluid for the propellers will only last for 2 hours. Therefore the anti-freeze equipment has to be only switched on when there duly is a risk of freezing: immediately when the zone, where freezing may occur, has been left behind, equipment must be switched off.

To the points a - b.

Continuous observation is not necessary.

e. Heating panels

Because heating panels do not have thermostats, the following guidelines have to be followed to prevent overheating.

1. While on the ground only short duration (10 sec) switching on is done. Contact surfaces that are not protected with Perspex extensions , are painted with protective lacquer "Garantator" (Ordering number: Flieglack #7151).

2. While the plane is standing still prior to taxiing, the plates are only switched on until the mist clears from the panels (also applies for normal flight).

3. When external freezing happens while flying in clouds or in snowstorm, the heating plate has to be immediately switched on and kept on as long as freezing occurs. After clearing the freezing zone heating has to be switched off.

4. When not in level flight and diving (entering from cold air to warm layer of air), due to excessive coldness of the plane, misting can be expected and the heating can be switched on in advance. After ending such flying th heating must be immediately switched off.

When using the heating plates mentioned above, the use of Nordland-plates is not anymore necessary as the heating plates, when taking the above mentioned in to account, fulfill fully their task.

7. High altitude flight

When performing a high altitude flight at more than 4000m altitude the interior temperature of the cockpit has to be kept above OY

Pressure of oxygen has to be checked. When the pressure is 150ATA, the contents in the fuselage tanks alone will last for 6 operating hours, and the fuselage tanks and wing tanks in the right wing combined will last for 9 operating hours when all the breathing masks are in use.

Oxygen tanks in Ju 88 C-6 will last for 4/1-2 hours.

8. Flight in bad weather

a. Taking off in bad weather

Blind take-off (fog) is not possible with hilly loaded airplane.

Take-off with the use of automatic directional steering is not possible.

Taking off in bad weather requires enough visibility to see the edges of the field and at least 20-3 0m of vertical visibility (obstacles around the field): at night a light must be seen some 4-5km and the cloud base must be at 100-150m. Take-off trim must have been set in flight. Trim is set to cruise when 200m altitude has been reached. Rain protection cover has to be put on the radio equipment. When radio is used the press buttons are opened from the cover in the cable duct, cover is rolled together and put in storage between the fuselage and the radio equipment frame.

b. Blind flight

1. Blind flight at cruise speed

Climbing and descending flight causes no particular problems.

When at over 6000m altitude the elevator controls are comparatively light.

In northerly (N-) direction of flight with the automatic steering there is slight veering, which can be corrected with opposite steering.

Long blind flights are only performed with planes which have operational directional steering.

2. Blind flight while steering from the right hand side seat. Is performed only with directional engaged with rudder.

Main instruments: artificial horizon, the banking indicator ball underneath the gyro-compass. It has to be taken care that the commander does not block the line of sight to the other instruments like variometer or air speed indicator with navigation map. Commander makes the position markings with the help of the direction indicator.

3. Radio direction finding.

Radio direction finding is performed by the commander or the co-pilot of the airplane. In this case the pilot seat is set to it's lowest position. Intercom (EiV-) switch is switched in the switch box ADb 11 (at right on the frame 6) in to position "Nav".

4. Receiving of the wireless operator with radio direction finding equipment. Local weather service.

If the long wave receiver is damaged, or if it is needed to receive local civilian weather reports outside the bandwidth of FuG X, the commander or the co-pilot tunes the radio direction finding equipment (correction diagram has to be used). Wireless operator performs the connection.

c. Landing in bad weather

Because of the fast rate of descent it is necessary to perform drills when the weather and visibility is good. Landing in bad weather is performed with the help of the directional steering. Banking turns have to be performed evenly, or severe veering off the course will happen.

The landing itself must not be performed with the directional steering.

Blind landing is not possible if the fog reaches right down to ground.

Normal values for landing flight:

Manifold pressure           0,9 ATA

Engine RPM        2100 RPM

Indicated airspeed          240-230 km/h

Landing flap angle            25Y(landing flight position)

Undercarriage position  down

Flying weigth     11000 kg or less

1. Blind landing based on signals (Ukw-)

a. In landing flight right until the preliminary signal (VE). Minimum altitude 250m

b. From the preliminary signal (VE) right until the main signal (HE).

Manifold pressure 0,7 ATA.

Indicated airspeed 210-200 km/h (at HE)

Indicated descent 4 m / sec

Altitude over HE 50m.

c. From the main signal (HE) right until the landing At HE both throttles are slowly pulled back to idling.

Landing flaps are opened hilly, and at the same time elevators adjust accordingly.

Rate of descent 6 m/sec.

Contact to ground when landing flaps are hilly (501) opened ca. 10 sec, that is 600-700m after hearing the main signal (300-400 m from the edge of the field).

Just prior to touching down the rate of descent has to be reduced by pulling the airplane to higher angle of attack: not to stall landing, then there is risk of dropping a wing.

Landing flaps are set to taking off position (251) only after the airplane has traveled 1000-2000m counting from the hearing of the main signal. When increasing the angle of the landing flaps, and when elevator adjusts accordingly, there will be notable tail heaviness, which is necessary in the final part of the landing flight prior touching down.

2. Blind landing based on signal strength (ZZ)

On the other hand the great rate of descent and long landing roll on the ground, and on the other hand the steep glide path with landing flaps fully opened does not allow for big differences in duration of throttle reduction.

Radio direction alternations, cross-wind based errors, multiplied by the fast approach of the aeroplane, and deceleration from the blending of the engine noise and the "ZZ"-signal prevent the necessary accurate position finding in the final approach.

All landing methods that are based on hearing a signal from the ground are therefore unsuitable for Ju 88 airplane. Only exception are airfields that are longer than 1,5km.[...]

4. Flaring off

Aborting the landing and following taking off again are performed as explained in the paragraph II Dl.

9. Night flying.

Taking off and landing at night time.

1. Length of runway lighting 450m (10 white lanterns) at minimum.

2. The end of the runway is marked with red lanterns which are 50 from the end.

3. On fields where electricity is available, are on dark nights obstacles and the edge of the runway lit on along the distance of the longer side of the field (front and back) and widely (to allow for larger variation of flight paths in take-off and landing).

Before taking off the flash suppressors have to be installed on the exhausts.

Navigation lights.

Instrument lighting.

Landing light (only used during take-off and landing) is switched on by pressing the switch on the left cockpit wall.

Instrument lighting is switched on with a switch on the right cockpit wall.

Adjusting the brightness of the sighting device reticule is done by rotating a knob on the device.

Cockpit is covered: windows with draw curtains.

front dome: lowering a curtain located behind the instrument panel.

10. Taking off with Siemens K4 U directional steering device

Switching on the directional steering device.

The knob of the direction setting rose on the directional gyro is pressed.

Main switch is set to Stage 1 (instrument panel in the front): directional gyro switches.

With the direction setter on the steering column the base of the directional gyro (upper gradient) is matched with the desired direction in the Patin secondary compass.

With the adjusting knob the directional gyro rose(lower gradient) is set to match with the directional gyro base (upper gradient) (pressing the adjusting knob disconnects the steering). Knob is pulled again.

Main switch is set to Stage 2: directional steering is switched on.

When the automatic steering device is switched on the aileron and elevator controls can be handed over to the bombardier to allow the pilot to rest or to perform other functions.

Bombardier then connects the auxiliary steering column (on the right wall) to it's socket (on bombardier's seat low left).

During take-off and landing the auxiliary steering column must be detached from it's socket.

Changing direction

1. Pilot of the airplane

Only with the direction setting switch(in the aileron control fork) the directional gyro base is set to the new, desired flying direction.

Directional setting switch has 3 positions, which make different turning speeds possible:

1. position 1Y sec

2. position 2Y sec (directional steering disengages, smallest radius turn in blind flight)

3. position 2,7Y sec

The banking indicator ball on the directional gyro must then be mainly in the middle (visual checking). Airplane is kept in the right turning position with the use of ailerons.

2. Bombardier (bombing run)

The engaging switch in the direction setting device LRg 5 is switched on.

Warning lamp lights on t h e instrument panel, and shows the pilot that the bombing run performed by the bombardier follows.

ATTENTION: When the signal lamps on the directional gyro are on, the pilot must not use the direction setting switch in the aileron control fork, because it will disengage the LRg 9. Bombardier sets the new position to the directional gyro by using the directional setter in the bomb- aiming device.

When in danger

1. The knob on the directional gyro is pressed or

2. The main switch is turned to far left to position "Off, ("Aus") or

3. The emergency disengaging knob on the left of the bombardiers seat is pulled or

4. By forcefully pressing the rudder pedals the controls are forced to operate in a other way than the directional steering is operating.

If the procedure in the point three is used, the directional steering cannot be switched on during the flight (main switch in position 1).

11. Flying in inclined flight direction

Flight on inclined plane downwards can be performed in following ways:

a. inclined descending flight (up until 201) without pull-out device and without dive- brakes.

b. dive-flight with pull-out device and dive-brakes

c. dive-flight with pull-out device but without dive-brakes

a. inclined descending flight (up until 201) without pull-out device and without dive-brakes.

Supercharger gear lever in position "Automatic" ("Automatik"), high gear will automatically switch off to low gear when reducing throttle to idling.

Propeller governor lever is set to position n = 2200RPM (VS 11-propeller 9-21024 A-3).

If the plane is installed with VS-propeller 9-21024 A-6, the propeller governor lever has to be set to n = 2300RPM.

Propeller governor will maintain the highest permissible RPM.

On VDM -propellers (Ju 88 D-5, D-5 Trop) propeller setting g-15.

Enriching lever in position "Normal".

Radiator flaps hilly closed.

Directional steering disengaged.

Highest permissible speeds:

Va = 675 km/h up until 2km altitude.

Va = 600 km/h above 2km altitude.

Pull-out is performed manually with the help of the elevator trim tabs (especially near the ground level).

b. dive-flight with pull-out device and dive-brakes.

1. Contact altimeter is set to dropping altitude.

2. Switch on the lower side of the main distribution box is set to position "Zielanflug - Kompassstiitzung aus".

3. The aeroplane is trimmed for diving flight. Red line on the elevator trim tab adjusting wheel must be pointing directly up, and the aileron and rudder trim indicators must be set to the red marks

4. Radiator flaps are closed.

5. Propeller governor lever is set to position n = 2300RPM (or 2200 RPM, see above).

6. Supercharger gear lever in position "Automatic" ("Automatik").

7. Enriching lever in position "Normal".

8. Dive brake switch is set to position "Open" ("Auf').

9. Simultaneously when the plane turns in to nose-heavy and to diving position, throttles are pulled to idling.

Greatest permissible speed:

Va = 575 km/h at 0-6km altitude

Attention: Dive is aborted if dive brakes are not opened.

10. Bomb release button is pressed when the signal horn sound in the Intercom device (EiV) ends.

If the bombs are not dropped , the pull-out button on the right cockpit wall has to be pressed instead of the bomb dropping button.

11. If the pull-out device malfunctions for some reason or another, the pull- out can be achieved by forcefully pulling the control column, pressing the the dive- brake switch back to position "Closed" ("Ein") and by using the elevator trim tabs as help (about 1V2 turns).

Addition to the point 3.

Under no circumstances the nose-heavy tendency that is caused by opening the dive brakes must not be trimmed out with the trim tabs, because the airplane will then significantly exceed 3g acceleration in pull-out.

In a dive performed according to the regulations, the force needed on the yoke will be reduced to 0kg as the speed increases.

Addition to the point 8

Airplane thus becomes trimmed nose-heavy, but can still be kept in level flight. Indicator sticks in the wings(lower white mark has to be visible, hydraulic oil pressure must be 85-95ATA) are used to verify that the dive-brakes are fully open.

Addition to the point 9

The inclination of the flight path can be noted in KuVi and with the red dive angle markings in the nose of the airplane. The red dive angle line going around the top of the cockpit (50T) is used to compare the dive angle with the horizon.

There is a multicolored dive angle scale 40Y-70Ygiving the dive angle in the left sliding window panel. There is:

40Ydive angle    = red

50Ydive angle    = black

60Ydive angle    = white

70Ydive angle    = brown

c. Dive-flight with pull-out device but without dive-brakes

Allowed only from starting position above 2000m. Points 1-7 are followed as described in paragraph 1 lb.

8. Trim adjustment (behind the dive-brake switch) knob is briefly pressed. Airplane is then trimmed nose-heavy, but can still be kept in level flight easily.

9. Simultaneously when the plane turns in to nose-heavy and to diving position, throttles are pulled to idling.

Greatest permissible speed: Vamax= 500 km/h

Points 10-11 are performed as described in paragraph 1 lb.

d. Height loss during pull-out.

1. inclined descending flight (up until 201) with pull-out acceleration of 2g.

Va = 675 km/h

Va = 600 km/h

height loss h=300m height loss h=300m

2. dive-flight with pull-out device and dive-brakes, with pull-out acceleration of 3g and at Va = 575 km/h.

height loss h=530m at 50Ydive angle

height loss h=700m at 60Ydive angle

height loss h=900m at 70Ydive angle

3. dive-flight with pull-out device but without dive-brakes, with pull-out acceleration of 3g and at Va = 550 km/h .

height loss h=460m at 50Ydive angle

height loss h=650m at 60Ydive angle

height loss h=850m at 70Ydive angle

e. Climb-flight following pull-out

After pull-out dive brakes are closed, and throttle is slowly increased until manifold pressure reaches 1,25 AT A

When under enemy anti-aircraft fire engine rpm can be raised to n=2600RPM, and manifold pressure to 1,4ATA for a short duration.

Propeller governor is set to match the engine RPM to the manifold pressure. Switch on the lower side of the main distribution box is set to position "Marschflug - Kompassstiitzung ein".

12. Flight with photographing equipment

a. Objective heating and warm air heating for the Rb. Both of these have to be switched on.

Every serial photographing setter device is set to "120" or "Stauluft".

b. Heating of the photographing equipment compartment (Karcher-oven)

(This equipment isn't installed on newer aeroplanes which are equipped with electrical heating already in the paragraph a.)

Device can only be switched on when the undercarriage is retracted and the flying altitude is below 3000m.

The switch "Karcher-oven" in the instrument panel is switched on. Heating switch is on the right side of the fuselage, behind the frame 6. Heating observation instrument is on the right side of the fuselage behind the frame 5.

Switching on: Heating switch is set to position "Cold" ("Kalt"). After 30 seconds it is set to position "Warm"("Warm")

Use: Heating observation instrument has to show minimum of 40X If the temperature is lower, the device is switched off. The cause of the problem is to be found and corrected.

Switching off: Is done no later than 5 min before landing. Heating switch is set to "Cold"("Kalt"). After 3 minutes switch is set to position "Off' ("Aus").

c. Operating the photographing equipment.

Serial photographing setter device is set forward from "120" or "Stauluft". By turning the knob further it is possible to set the photographing interval from 90 seconds to 4 seconds.

Serial photographing device's warning lamp will lit ca. 2 sec before shutter opens and will remain lit as long as the shutter remains open. Two other warning lamps are on the right side of the fuselage, below the flare ammunition box. Lamps which show the running of the film in the cameras, will keep flashing as long as the film keeps going on.

The number of photographs taken can be seen on the mechanical counter on the serial photographing device. After photographing has ended serial photographing device and the signal lamps are switched off. The sliding hatch of the photographing aperture is closed.

13. Landing

Maximum permissible 1anding weight: 12000kg

Normal landing weight: 11000kg

IMPORTANT: Landing is only performed without bomb load and wit h external fuel tanks being empty.

Landing with bombs on board can be performed only if when with the take-off weight of 13,75 tones 2150 liters of fuel has been used or jettisoned.

Landing with start rockets is not possible because then the maximum landing weight would be exceeded.

Emergency jettison.

In emergency bombs are dropped to specially chosen areas (closed area) secured.

Emergency jettisoning of fuel (only possible from the fuselage tanks) is performed as follows:

The switch "Emergency jettison" ("Schnellablass") is on the switch box (left cockpit wall) can be accessed by opening a securing lid.

The forward fuselage tank is emptied first then the rearward fuselage tank.

(emptying of both fuselage tanks simultaneously is forbidden, because this prevents emptying of the other tank , when the other one is already empty.)

Lever is set to position "On" ("Ein").

Time for emptying when n=2250RPM

a) for full forward fuselage tank (1200 1) = 1 min 40 sec.

b) For full rearward fuselage tank (680 1) = ca. 1 min.

Jettisoning can be aborted by turning the lever to position "Off' ("Aus"). The smallest amount of fuel.

When running out of fuel one of the feeding tanks can be flown to empty state, when only the other one has 551 as the smallest necessary amount of fuel, for the possibility of having to abort the landing and flare off again.

Valve battery switch A to position 1, right engine fuel pump selector (FB) to position "PI" when:

When the smallest amount of fuel is in the right feeding tank.

Electrical transfer pump has to be switched to the according feeding pump (for possible flaring off).

Auxiliary steering column is disconnected from it's socket if it was used. Machine gun operator sits on his folding seat facing forward (laying in the gondola is forbidden).

Wireless operator's seat is in the lowest position. Seat belts are fastened.

Directional steering main switch is set to stage 1.

Supercharger lever is in the position "Automatic" ("Automatik").

Enriching 1ever is set to the position "Normal".

At sufficient altitude airspeed is reduced to the value Va = 260 km/h. Radiator flaps are fully open.

Lever for air filtering to position "Suction through the filter" ("Ansaugluft Gefiltert"). Landing flaps are first set to position 25Y(middle position).

Operating lever is turned in direction "Open" ("Aus") to position "Landing flaps" ("Landeklappe").

When the landing flaps are in the angle of 25Y, the operating lever is again returned to 0-position.

After this speed must not exceed Va = 255 km/h, because otherwise the landing flap securing will be opened and the flaps have to be re-opened.

The changes in the aeroplanes balance are corrected with manually adjusting the elevators trim tabs (large hand wheel on the left cockpit wall).

The landing field is circulated in normal turning flight at ca. Va = 220 km/h. Speed. The undercarriage is lowered. Operating lever is set to position "Down" ("Aus").

When the indicator device shows that the undercarriage and the tail wheel are fully lowered and locked, one must wait for t sec until the undercarriage bay doors are closed again. The overall time that this operation takes is ca. 25-28 sec. The undercarriage operating lever is returned to 0-position.

Approx. 1-2 km before the airfield edge the landing flaps (and the elevator) are set to full angle (501)

Operating lever is turned in direction "Open" ("Aus") to position "Elevator and landing flaps" ("Hohenflosse und Landeklappe").

When landing flaps are in position the operating lever is returned to 0-position(otherwise automatic securing of the flaps will not function).

The entering oil temperature must not be below 40Y

Landing speed : Va = 210 - 220 km/h.

Just prior to touching down throttle is slowly reduced to the idling stops and the aeroplane is pulled to 3-point landing attitude.

In strong winds and in gusty weather landing must be performed accurately towards the wind and with fully opened landing flaps at speed of Va = 220 km/h. Speed when aeroplane touches the ground is, when landing weight is 11500kg,

Va = 160 km/h. Simultaneously pilot pulls hard to straighten the plane.

Landing run distances in windless conditions when brakes are used:

When weight is 11500kg = 500-700m from touching down until the aeroplane has stopped.

When weight is 11500kg = 700-900m from over a 20m high obstacle until the aeroplane has stopped.

Brakes are used only if it is absolutely necessary.

If the landing is a training landing or if brakes were heavily used, a break of few minutes must be taken to cool down the wheel brakes, before they are used again (while taxiing). Landing flaps are pulled to cruising position while taxiing.

When landing flaps are fully closed , the operating lever is set to 0-position. Only after this it is possible to perform turning while taxiing. Exiting from the aeroplane.

When opening the C-position for exiting from the aeroplane, the hatch is carefully lowered with the use of rope, not let to freely fall open.

14. Stopping the engines

Radiator flaps are fully open.

Already in landing pattern the radiator flaps have to be fully opened to achieve lower cooling fluid temperature and so that the flawless turning off the engines would be possible. If the cooling fluid temperature is very high, the engines have to be run at ca. 1200 - 1400 rpm speed with low manifold pressure (ca 0,7ATA), until the engine cools down. During this the plane must be facing the wind.

Engines are stopped when the temperature reaches 115KC. Throttle is left ca. 1200RPM setting.

Enriching 1 e v e r is set to the position "Normal".

Main fuel cock is closed (simultaneously instant stopping mechanism in the fuel injection pumps is actuated). Ignition is switched off.

If the engine backfires or rotates backwards, the throttle is set to full and propellor is feathered. N ever switch on the ingnition again. Before the engine stops close the radiator flaps.

When the engine has stopped, push the network switch (instrument panel low left) and leave the throttle to idling position. Main fuel cock is opened for a short time (1-2 min) to easen up to engine start with cold engine.

Switch in the left cockpit wall and the radio equipment are switched off, all the switches in the switch board are left switched on.

For cold start preparations before stopping the engines see part III.


1. Flaring off

Flaring off before landing has been fully completed, with fully lowered landing flaps and undercarriage, is possible. Even so when doing this an unpleasant phenomena of very strong tail heaviness appears.

The RPM selector switch is kept in the position n=2250RPM or in Ju 88 D-5 and Ju 88 D-5 Trop. Propellor pitch is kep in the position 1150.

Throttle is slowly applied to full when reaching the speed of Va = 220 km/h. The RPM selector switch can be pushed along. Landing flaps are not closed.

Landing flap operating lever is kept in the position 0.

Due to increased air pressure the landing flaps return to lower angle automatically, when speed has increased over Va = 255 km/h (landing flap securing), and so they must be re-opened when trying to land again.

Landing flaps are thus retracted only after reaching 200m altitude, if they have not retracted themselves already earlier.

Flaring off is made more difficult due to the lag in the indication of instruments, especially with altimeter and variometer. Main instrument along the turn and bank indicator is thus air speed indicator.

All other function as in normal take-off.

Attention: Flaring off with lowered undercarriage in single engine flight is not possible.

2. Pull-out mechanism is inoperational

If pull-out mechanism is inoperational, the pull-out can be performed by using the elevator t rim tabs (Approx. for 11/2 turns on the wheel to direction "Tail heavy" ("Schwanzlastig"), after which flight is continued and landing performed.

When dive brakes are open, the dive brake switch is set to position "Closed" ("Ein").

3. Hydraulic oil system is out of order

Switching diagrams for both hydraulic oil emergency switches are kept next to the switches. Undercarriage lever (in the left panel) is kept at the 0-position, while landing flap operating lever is turned in direction "Open" ("Aus") to position "Landing flaps" ("Landeklappe"). The dive brake switch is set to position "Closed" ("Ein").

1. Operating the undercarriage bay door emergency switch

First the undercarriage bay doors are opened, and second the undercarriage is lowered._ Right hand side hydraulic oil emergency switch is switched to position 1 "Undercarriage bay doors emergency" ("Fahrgestellklappe - Not"), manual pump operating lever (low left on the observers seat) is set in place in the pump and with the pump the doors are opened until the operating pressure starts to grow much. Undercarriage bay doors are thus opened.

There is no dedicated indicator, but the bay doors can be seen from the cockpit. The undercarriage indicator does not show locked anymore when the bay doors are opened even slightly.

2. Operating the undercarriage emergency switch

Lowering the undercarriage at speeds over Va = 265 km/h is prohibited. The speed has to be reduced to Va = 200 km/h if possible to reduce the forces that need to be overcome by the pumping action.

Lowering of the undercarriage with the emergency operation takes ca. 3 min which equals to 180- 200 double pump strokes.

To prevent accidental switching on of the emergency system prior opening the undercarriage bay doors to position "Undercarriage" ("Fahrgestell"), is the righthand hydraulic emergency switch equipped with a safety (press button) between positions 2 and 3. Right hand side hydraulic emergency switch is set to position 2 "Undercarriage - emergency"("Fahrgestell - Not"), while simultaneously pressing the safety, and then pumping down the undercarriage with the manual pump, until the indicator shows "Undercarriage down" ("Fahrgestell ausgefahren) and "Locked"("Verriegelt").

Right hand side hydraulic emergency switch is returned to position 3, and the undercarriage operating lever to position 0.

During switching over the pumping has to be paused. Pumping is only continued only when continuing with the action described in point 3. Undercarriage bay doors are left open.

When using the emergency hydraulic switches the tail wheel remains retracted inside the fuselage. Landing has to be then used using the auxiliary tail spur. Taxiing with the auxiliary tail spur is prohibited.

3. Operating the landing flap emergency switch

Lowering time for the landing flaps using the emergency hydraulic switches - 30-35 seconds, equalling to 30-35 double strokes on the manual pump.

Left emergency hydraulic switch is set to position 4 "Landing flaps - emergency" ("Landeklappe - Not").

Landing flaps are opened with the hand pump.

For landing flap angles the following speed restrictions have to be noted:

Take-off position (251) Take-off position (501)

Va max = 250-320 km/h Va max = 255-275 km/h

When the use of emergency hydraulic switch is finished, the emergency hydraulic switch has to be set to position 6. When using the emergency hydraulic switch the elevator will not function along with the flaps.

4. Operating the dive brake emergency switch Only retracting the dive brakes is possible.

Retracting time is ca. 36-40 seconds equalling to 36-40 dual strokes on the hand pump. Left emergency hydraulic switch is set to position 5 "Dive brakes - emergency" ("Sturzflugbremseklappen - Not"). Dive brakes are fully retracted with the hand pump.

After finishing the use of emergency system, the hydraulic oil emergency switch is returned to position 6. When using the emergency hydraulic switch the elevator will not function and return to original position. It must be corrected with the trim wheel.

If the limiter switch belonging to electrical equipment does not function the pressure will remain the device. In such case the switch "RAB - Pull-out device" ("RAB Abfang-Vorrictung") must be disconnected to spare the pump.

When engines are off or when the engine pumps are damaged, must all devices be operated with the emergency system. Only when the emergency system is damaged it is allowed to use hand pumping for all functions with by-passing both hydraulic emergency switches 5 and 6, not counting in the "Undercarriage up"("Fahrwerk einfahren") operation, as it would require too much manual strength.

When propeller automatic malfunctions, it is basically required to switch off the propeller automatic operation by disconnecting the corresponding switch "VS automatic left engine" ("VS Automatik links Antrieb") or "VS automatic right engine" ("VS Automatik rechts Antrieb") in the switch board.

4. Malfunctions in the propeller automatic

When propeller automatic malfunctions, it is basically required to switch off the propeller automatic operation by disconnecting the corresponding switch "VS automatic left engine" or "VS automatic right engine" in the switch board.

5. Engine trouble

In order to avoid difficult single engine landings, the engine in question is stopped so quickly in case of a malfunction, that it can be started again for short time for landing. During the landing damaged engine is used with as low power setting as possible.

Throttle is pulled back to idling.

Main fuel cock is closed.

Ignition is immediately switched off.

VS 11 propeller's manual selector is pressed to position "Feathered"("Segelstellung") long enough (ca. 10 sec), until the feathered state has been reached.

VDM propeller's manual selector is pressed to position "Feathered"("Segelstellung") where it is locked. The feathering time is ca. 40 sec, with propeller pitch indicator showing 225 = 87X After reaching the feathered position the switch is released. Radiator flaps are closed.

Fuel pumps for both feeding tanks are immediately switched to operating engine ( switch box on the left cockpit wall).

If the engine failure happens during take-off or immediately after taking off, the switch to single engine flight is not possible, even if the flying weight is such that the normal single engine level flight would be possible.

In such case note the paragraph "Forced landing".

If there is a fire in the engine compartment the cockpit heating and de-icing lever for the wing in question is switched "Off' ("Zu").

6. Single engine flight

1) Flying weight is reduced to suitable weight (10500kg, maximum of 11000kg) required for single engine level flight. To be performed:

a. Emergency bomb jettison.

b. Partial emptying of fuselage tank with fuel jettison device (also see II C. 13) (Trailing antenna must be winched in prior fuel jettison, otherwise risk of fire!)

c. Jettisoning of the wing bomb racks at less than Va = 250 km/h speed.

d. Jettisoning of armor plates and all unnecessary equipment from the plane; the jettisonable part of C-position is not released as that would damage the aerodynamics of the plane.

c. and d. Or performed only in such case that the aeroplane cannot maintain level flight after performing points a, b and c.

Addition to point c.: two sealed switches in the middle above from the instrument panel. Switch in the switch board "Wing racks jettison" ("Lastentrager - Absprengung") must be switched on.

Operating switches are not turned simultaneously, but one after another.

Addition to point d.: Four collapsible armour plates for the radio equipment and other armour plates are detached as follows:

Locking handle is turned around, and the latch mechanisms on the armour plate sides are opened.

Hinge bolts are pressed upwards. The locks in them are set parallel to the hinge bolt axis. Armour plates are held fast. Hinge bolts are pulled off.

Armour plates are dropped from the open C-position hatch (hatch to be closed after jettison).

2) If possible do not reduce speed under Va = 250 km/h. Altitude can not be held by loosing airspeed.

If speed cannot be maintained for example due gusts, aeroplane can be put into a shallow dive.

3) Landing flaps in cruise position OX

4) Undercarriage retracted.

5) On the running engine:

Manifold pressure p = 1,25 ATA

RPM n = 2400RPM (30 min climb and combat power)

RPM selection lever is is set to the corresponding engine RPM.

6) Cooling fluid temperature and engine oil temperature are closely followed. If the highest permissable values are exceeded, power has to be reduced.

7) Weight of the rudder is reduced with the trim tabs.

8) Automatic direction steering is switched on in a following way:

a. Direction gyro button is pressed.

b. Aeroplane is let to hang on the side of the operating engine for one ball width in the turn and bank indicator (directional gyro).

c. In front of the instrument panel on the right, the switch for single engine flight is turned to the side of the not operating engine (Va less than 270 km/h.).

d. The rose (directional gyro's lower reading) is set parallel with the desired course.

e. Direction gyro button is pulled.

f. Direction is changed until the width of the bubble evens out.

g. Beginning of the turn is with out question helped with ailerons.

9) Because only one generator is operating, the battery is heavily strained, when radio equipment and direction steering are simultaneously used. Therefore the transformer for FuG 10 transmitter set is switched on only when necessary. BZA-device is disconnected.

10) Fuel is first fed from the tanks on the side of the stopped engine.

Valve battery switch is simultaneously turned to the side of the stopped engine and locked. The fuel pump selector (FB) switch of the operating engine is in the position "PI". The fuel on the fuel cells on the side of the operating engine is cut out, and the fuel on the cells on the side of the stopped engine is connected into use.

Banking in single engine flight.

Banking turn, especially on the side of stopped engine, has to be performed without slipping and with overspeed.

Fig. 6 Performing a single engine landing


7. Forced landing.

a. Landing from single engine flight (see picture 6)

1) Flying weight has to be reduced as much as possible (see. 6." Single engine flight", point 1.)

2) Airfield is to be kept on the side of the operating engine, and the landing site is circulated in banking turn.

3) While doing this altitude must not be lower than 300m counting from the airfield, preferably not lower than 500m.

4) The RPM selection lever is set to position n = 2250RPM.

5) Landing flaps are set to 25Yangle. (take-off position).

6) Undercarriage is immediately lowered , when the landing signal cross on the near edge of the field can be seen in 60Yangle relative to the flight path.

7) Landing flaps are opened to full angle (501) on if, landing has been started from too high altitude, otherwise landing is possible also when the landing flaps are in the take-off position (251) (shallow glide path).

Attention: Undercarriage lowering times: With engine 40 sec.

Manually 3 min; 180-200 pump strokes.

Landing flap opening times: With engine 15 sec.

Manually 30 sec; 30-35 pump strokes.

8) While lowering the undercarriage and opening the landing flaps the aeroplane is turned towards the airfield (in calm weather extending the flight path, in windy weather staying near the field), landing is started at 200m altitude and with little throttle by steering the aeroplane in to correct glide path.

Glide path with lowered undercarriage and landing flaps fully opened is, when engines are idling, very steep (1:8). Therefore landings flaps are opened fully only if fast loss of altitude is required.

Banking turns and glide path at speed Va = 210 - 220 km/h.

9) During the last part of airfield approach the rudder trim tabs are set to half and and aileron trim tabs at 0, because pressure on the controls is to counter whilst landing.

Only very shortly before touching down the throttle is pulled to idle position. By doing this the strong braking effect of the propellers is avoided.

10) If touching down appears to be happening too early, landing glide can be extended with the help of the engine.

Throttle is increased very slowly and only as much as to ju st barely keep the aeroplane in the air.

In an emergency it is better to touch down even at too high speed when the glide slope remains normal, than to add excessively add thrust to only one engine and thus cause a flip over one wing.

11) Landing on the fuselage (undercarriage retracted) has to be always performed:

If for a reason or another (low cloud base) it is impossible to reach minimum necessary altitude of 300m prior to single engine landing.

If there is no suitable place for performing a normal landing.

Landing on the fuselage is not as dangerous to the crew as nosing over, which can happen in normal landing, when conditions for landing are not satisfactory. Landing on the fuselage is started as a normal landing.

These points must be noted:

a) C-gunner position has to be ejected prior to landing if there is a risk of nosing over.

b) Undercarriage is not lowered, not even partially.

c) Landing flaps are set to fully open angle (50Y).

d) When aeroplane touches down, propellers should preferably be standing still (feathered). Canopy ejection mechanism is disengaged but canopy is not released.

e) Fly only very slightly above ground, and then aeroplane is pulled slowly and evenly in such manner that it touches the ground with it's auxiliary spur first (glider landing is performed).

f) Everything is tightly tied on their places. Head is turned to right, away from the Revi sight.

g) Machine gun operator is sitting on his seat, ventral gondola is normally torn away in the landing.

h) Wireless operator has to note following things:

Armour plating has to be tightly locked in place. ) If not jettisoned

Weapons must be tied with their belts. ) during the flight.

Wireless operator's seat must be in the lowest position.

During the glide in to the landing wireless operator detaches the microphone from his operator's head piece. Radio contact will still remain open. If wireless operator wishes to speak, all he has to do is to press the microphone against his throat.

After this wireless operator grabs his seat belt tightly in order to avoid injury in the case of nosing over.

Flaring off from single engine landing.

Flaring off from single engine landing (i.e. aborting the landing in it final phase), when only one engine is running, is i m p o s s i b 1 e , if the undercarriage is lowered or the landing flaps are fully opened.

c. Forced landing when both engines have stopped.

The main fuel cock is closed. Ignition is switched off.

If possible propellers are set to position "Feathered" ("Segelstellung"). Before landing Verey pistol flares are jettisoned. C-gunner position is jettisoned.

Right before touching down the canopy jettisoning system is opened.

d. Landing into water

Before hitting the water crew must:

1) Jettison the canopy.

2) Open parachute harnesses.

3) Retract undercarriage, stop the engines.

4) Open landing flaps to full angle and

5) When the wind is strong and waves large perform a normal landing towards the wind.

6) When the wind is weak or in calm weather when waves are large land in the direction of the waves on their crest.

7) In rough seas and strong winds jumping on a parachute must be considered better alternative than landing on the water, because in rough seas aeroplane will sink to the bottom immediately and thus getting out of it is questionable.

8) Landing on the water is performed tail first.

9) Immediately before the aeroplane touches the water wireless operator operates the dinghy release lever (at frame 8a).

1. Release step (15mm stroke) "Hatches released" ("Klappen frei")

2. Release step (140mm stroke) "Dinghy released" ("Boot frei")

Dinghy is then filled with carbon dioxide and it emerges from it's locker. Dinghy is ready for use.

10)          After the aeroplane has contacted the water:

Seatbelts are opened, crew exits the aeroplane. Bottle valves of the life jackets are opened. (Pressure air bottles must not be opened under no circumstances before opening the seatbelts nor when in the aeroplane under no circumstances, because that may present the danger of not getting out of the plane.)

The dinghy is pulled near with the pull chord outside the fuselage. The three piece oars are made operational, and attached to the oarlocks. The dinghy is boarded and following procedures performed:

1) Pull chord is detached. It is most reasonable to pull it in to the dinghy.

2) The knot on the hand rope/rescue rope is untied and dinghy pushed clear from the aeroplane.

3) When the hand rope is packed tightly, another knot/hand rope is opened (on newer dinghies there is no hand rope, but "weak point" for breaking.)

For emergency radio transmitter operation, see: "Ju 88 aeroplane radio equipment - Shrt manual for wireless operators and crew" (" Ju 88 Flugzeug-Bordfunkanlage - Kurzbetriensanweisung fur Bordfunker und Besatsung").

e. Landing into water with parachute

1) In calm weather and light wind the parachute harness is opened when slightly over the surface (ca. l-2m), making sure not to be covered with the parachute and getting trapped with in the ropes.

2) In strong wind close to shoreline or rescue vessel the harness is not opened before the parachute has dropped in to the water to maximise the sail effect.

3) Only after opening the parachute harness the bottle valve of the life vest is opened.

4) If rescue aeroplane comes in to sight while floating in the water, a dye bag is set in to the water by opening it's mouth and removing it's rubber cover. Bag will empty itself in 10 minutes and the splash of color will remain ca. 1V2 hours.

8. Emergency equipment of the aeroplane

a. Tropical emergency gear.

b. Winter emergency equipment

Equipment has been placed in box-sleigh with detachable skis, installed in the dinghy locker. When taking the emergency equipment from the aeroplane the skis stored inside the box have to be attached to the ski fastening irons in the bottom of the box. A wooden dowels belonging the attachment points has to be stricken in the hole reserved for it. For preventing accidental detachment of the dowels and resulting detachment of the skis, each dowel is equipped with a locking loop which is put in to longitudal groove reserved for it after striking in the dowels, and screwed in to the ski.

9. Jumping with the parachute.

Parachute jump is only performed on the order of the pilot of the aeroplane. There are two alternative exit routes:

1) Through the ventral hatch,

2) Through the ejected canopy.

If possible jump is done through the ventral hatch, because when exiting from the ejected canopy it possible that the jumper be injured by the tail assembly.

To point 1. Jettisoning the C-gunner position. Trailing antenna in pulled in or cut.

First the latch on the attachment rope is detached from the static ventral gondola. Safety on the red lever on the bottom of the gondola is removed and lever is turned. Lower part of C-gunner position falls off.

To point 2. Jettisoning of the canopy.

First the armor plates are removed.

All crew members must be fastened with seat belts.

Safety on a hand lever high behind the frame 6 is removed by the wireless operator or the observer, and he also pushes around with open grip, without holding the lever in hand. The rear part of the canopy is detached and the air stream wrenches it clear from the aeroplane.

10. Wilful destruction of the aeroplane.

If the aeroplane has to be landed in enemy territory, without any chance of rescue, the aeroplane has to be destroyed. See part 9A "General equipment, booklet 5, "Self destruction device".

Note: this was probably scanned using OCR software. There were a few errors I corrected but could easily have missed some.
Additional Images not from original